Volkswagen,a Promoter of Global Warming
Historyof Debated Subject and How It become Important
Globalwarming has been a subject of debate for a decade now and has gainedprominence in its discussions especially in the second half of thelast decade. The issue of global warming, in fact, is becoming moreof a worry owing to increase in fuel emission that leads to growth inglobal warming (Nordhaus 34). Currently, global warming is a socialand political topic owing to the effects it has on people.
Theimportance of this matter has largely been as a result of thecontroversy that has come with it, the global warming controversy.The controversies are whether global warming is occurring and theextent that has occurred in the society today. The causes, as well asthe effects of global warming, have been a concern. Of interest inthis matter is whether the action has been taken to curb the issueand whether there are any steps necessary to be made to address itand are the steps defined. The importance of the issue seems to beunderlying the fact that every other person agreed that the globalsurface temperatures have been on increase in the recent decades(Keohane and Victor 19). Individuals also tend to agree that thecause has been human-induced emissions of the greenhouse gases(Arnell and Reynard 404).
CurrentState of the Debate
Overthe years, several laws have been pushed to address the issue ofglobal warming with the United States through the EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA) having the mandate to regulate greenhousegases as stipulated in the Clean Air Act (Walker 445). The lawapplies to both the stationary and mobile sources of air pollution.This only came to force on January 2, 2011. In accordance to Section202 of the CAA, the standards that dictate mobile sources likeVolkswagen has been established. On the other hand, for stationarysources of the GHGs, the standards have been defined under theauthority of Part C of Title I of the Clean Air Act. There are a lotof lawsuits that have been made in regards to the issue but none hasgone through and largely they have been determined with the law andrequirements as enshrined in the Clean Air Act (Walker 449).
Sidesof the Debate
Interestingly,both sides of the divide agree that there has been an increase inglobal warming. They tend to agree that since the beginning of the20th Century, temperatures have increased and the emission ofgreenhouses gases like carbon dioxide and methane has increased.Notably, the pro side argues that the rise in the level of theatmospheric greenhouse gases has occurred manly as a result of humanactivities (McCarthy 7). Some of the human activities include burningof fossil fuels. They then argue that the effects increase severeclimate changes as global warming, the rise in sea level, sea iceloss and stronger storms. They are of the opinion that there is aneed to have immediate solution globally to reduce the emissions ofthe greenhouse gases that are necessary for prevention of the climatechanges.
Theother side of the debate contends that the human-generated greenhousegas emissions are small to affect the climate of the earth and thatthe earth has the capability of absorbing the increases. According totheir view, the global warming mainly occurred due to naturalprocesses like fluctuations in the heat of the sun and oceancurrents. That saying that humans led to global warming cannot besubstantiated as the arguments raised are often based on faultyclimate models and misleading facts in science. Seemingly, just asthey agree that global warming is here with us, they seem to expectthat the right measures shall be put in place to address the issue sothat it does not turn out to be disastrous to humanity.
Biologybehind Global Warming
Thebiological concept of global warming mainly manifests itself throughthe emission of carbon dioxide gases that are known to be the majorGHGs. Apart from the natural sources of the carbon dioxide gases thatinclude volcanoes and combustion there is the biological source,which entails the decay of organic matter and the respiration ofaerobic organisms (Cox 186). Even though, it is argued that thesebiological sources are balanced on average by sinks it is notapparent that the process that entail physical, chemical orbiological processes entirely removes carbon dioxide from the air(Botkin 229). Terrestrial vegetation might take up carbon dioxidethrough photosynthesis but not much of it. Even though there areorganisms that take up carbon dioxide through the biological pump,the organisms expire and fall in the ocean floor where carbon isburied (Botkin 231). Nonetheless, long-term balance between thebiological processes and the natural sources leads to emission ofcarbon into the atmosphere.
HowScience Shape Arguments of the Debate
Thearguments raised on the pro side in regards to global warming havemainly been guided by scientific knowledge. The pro side argues thatincrease in global warming has been as a result of human activitiesthat has increased emission of greenhouse gases. The burning offossil fuels indeed results in the emission of carbon as it is acompound of fossil fuels (Hughes 59). The other side attests thatglobal warming has been as a result of a decrease in the heat of thesun and ocean currents. This side seems not to rely on scientificknowledge as such. In fact, this side dismisses it as misleadingscience facts.
Lookingat the arguments raised on both sides, they are to some extent validowing to the explanations that have been forwarded by the supporters.Nonetheless, the pro side seems to have waged proper explanation onthe cause of global warming.
Itend to opine that global warming has mainly been as a result ofhuman activities that I think have been negative. Through humanactivities, there has been an increase in greenhouse emission ofgases (Nordhaus 25). One such human activity that has been a largecontributor to this is burning of fossil fuels in factories andvehicles. I have knowledge in regards to the biological processes andI do not think that it has been a contributor to the process. I amaware of the activities of humans and think that they have largelycontributed to global warming.
Arnell,N. W., and N. S. Reynard. "The effects of climate change due toglobal warming on river flows in Great Britain." Journalof hydrology 183.3(1996): 397-424.
Botkin,Daniel B., et al. "Forecasting the effects of global warming onbiodiversity." Bioscience 57.3(2007): 227-236.
Cox,Peter M., et al. "Acceleration of global warming due tocarbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model." Nature 408.6809(2000): 184-187.
Hughes,Lesley. "Biological consequences of global warming: is thesignal already apparent?." Trendsin ecology & evolution 15.2(2000): 56-61.
Keohane,Robert O., and David G. Victor. "The regime complex for climatechange." Perspectiveson politics 9.01(2011): 7-23.
McCarthy,Mark P., Martin J. Best, and Richard A. Betts. "Climate changein cities due to global warming and urban effects." GeophysicalResearch Letters37.9(2010).
Nordhaus,William D. Aquestion of balance: Weighing the options on global warming policies.Yale University Press, 2014.
Walker,W. Reed. "Environmental regulation and labor reallocation:Evidence from the Clean Air Act." TheAmerican Economic Review 101.3(2011): 442-447.