URBAN ISSUES 5
Belowis a summation of the five topics, topic eight up to topic twelvefrom the 6thedition and they include the following, High-speedtrains, Law Enforcement,Race Class and Ethnicity, immigration conflict and Child poverty. Thetopics aresummarizedsummation is inthat order.
Chapter 8(High-Speed trains.)
TheObama administration is focusing on improving the rail network bycoming up with a budget and a plan of advancing into has designatedeight billion US Dollars in stimulus funds for high-speedrailway network. However,passenger rails. Thisbringshope that super trains will operate throughout the American landscapeas they do elsewhere inEurope and Asia. (CQResearcher, 2012)Experts say that the budget set aside for this project is fundsshouldfocuson building the true high-speedservice train in the busy Northeast corridor however the funds willbe divided among different corridors.Once divided the funds will not be enough instead it will just beused to improve the current buy a single fast rail system. Supportersargue that this will make the olderoldtrains faster(CQResearcher, 2012).The trains will then,and they will pay for planning to make realhigh-speedrail systems.These havehowever faced criticism since the budget is not enough the governmentshould befocusedon building fasthigh-speedservice trains in the busy North East Corridor.networks a reality.Thisis confirmed by the bookthat California’s budget for their high-speedrail systemwill cost nine billion US Dollars.(CQ Researcher, 2012)
Onmatters involving the 2. Chapter 9(Law Enforcement, the)
TheUS defense department is urging allof justice is stepping itsoversight of local police departments wheninvolved in the civilian encounter to reduce the amount of force andalso eliminate racial profiling during traffic stops. TheseThedepartment of justice stems these powers froma 1994 law that allows the federal government to investigate apattern or practice of constitutional violations and threaten courtactions to force police agencies to adopt changes (CQResearcher, 2012).Thiscameafter a racialraciallycharged shooting death of a Florida teenager by a neighborhood watchvolunteer (CQResearcher, 2012).The racially police departments are present in New Orleans, Seattle,and Maricopa County.There have been cases of police harassment ofdifferent . The police ought to be prudent when conducting their workfor not everyone is a criminal and if by doing so, profiling peopleby their race or color could result tothedeathof many innocent people.
3.Chapter 10 (Race, Class,and Ethnicity)
TheUS has people of different colors with the black Americansraces,ranging from Latinos to Indians. Each of these variousraces has different cultures as well as different personalities,which may result inthese races having different grounds. The class difference is broughtabout by the differences in the level of education, types of job andlevel a person is in the society or government. Ever since thewelfare reforms weresweptin 1990’s,there has been a healthy economic growth however domestic povertyremains intractable. The poverty levels are tremendously increasingwith the poverty levels beingthemost victimized in thisfueledby immigration, education disparities,and calamities. The solution out of it is emphasizing personalresponsibility and promote marriages thatwill reduce the number of children born out of wedlock. Liberalsmostly focus on the adverseeffects of government budgets cuts for anti-povertyprograms, tax cuts benefiting the wealthy and need for the earlychildhood development program.(CQ Researcher, 2012) Thefocus should beaddressedto things that are adversely affecting the US government as a wholeand also looking for solutions.
Race,Classand Ethnicity have also contributed intothe urban issues in America. From the book,it`sspecified that there are jobs meant for the different in race peoplewherebythe whites get to do the white collar jobs while the rest are left todo the ‘other jobs.`Theclassisalso differentiatedwhereby the rich don’t get to mix with the poor, the tax ratesavailable tend to favor the rich than the poor. This is also visiblein schools where the less fortunate get to attend the public schools,and also their loans limit are low compared to those lucky.Poverty isfueledby a long list of problems like the ones above. The solution to thisis having higher marriage rates so that there is a minimum ofchildren born out of wedlock, need for early childhood programs andhaving a financial system that caters for all.
Immigrationconflict has been there ever since times in memorial yet the problemistherehowever how to solve it is what is a mystery. There are 11 millionaliens in the US which raisethe question of how they would bedealtwith this is because the laws set aside by the counties affectedcould result to ethnic profiling of Latinos (CQResearcher, 2012).The government,notedbut how to deal with it becomes a problem. The local governments arefrustrated with the federal government failure to secure the borders.Thishasresulted insome states passing laws thatallow the local police to check the immigration status of suspectedunlawful aliens. However,civil rights warn that the rulesmight leadto ethnic profiling specifically to the Latinos. The Obamaadministration has sued to block several of the laws thatdiminish the right or privileges’ of the immigrants. The argumentabout illegal immigrants is that they take up jobs meant for theAmerican people however,has opposed to this by moving tothe Supreme Court to ensure that the laws made get to bereviewedbefore they are implemented.(CQ Researcher, 2012)Some argue that the aliens take the jobs meant for the Americanpeople.However,the agricultural groups have a different view on this. Agriculturalgroups argue that migrants are needed to fill in the immigrants takeup jobs unattractive to the US citizens. There are however plans ofmaking the aliens become citizens of the US.American citizens.(CQ Researcher, 2012)
5.Chapter 12 (Child Poverty)
Inevery five American children, one lives ina household with income below the poverty line in a family of four.Experts say that many will suffer lifelongeffects from early deprivation due to child poverty. Concern hasgrownTheconcern about child poverty especially high amid a push inhas pushedCongress for sweepingto sweep budget cuts thesethis includesanti-poverty programs and reductions in spending on food stamps andother anti-poverty programs. (CQResearcher, 2012)Liberals,however, argue that the number of children living under the povertyline would reduce if the safety nets imposed by the government werestronger and more jobs were available for the struggling parents.Conservatives argue that child poverty mainlystems from parental behavior thatwould bereducedif thechildren born out of wedlock wasto be reduced. The government is also ensuring that children gettheir basic needs by providing children welfare funds and alsoensuring that children get to go to school.
CQResearcher,(2012). UrbanIssues (6thed., pp. 201-330). CQ Press.