Teaching plan to overcome the non-adherence to medication


Teachingplan to overcome the non-adherence to medication

Teachingplan to overcome the non-adherence to medication

Theauthor’s teaching plan is focused with diabetes patients aged 65 to75 with a bad habit of not taking their medication. There are variousfactors attributable to poor medical adherence among the individualsliving with chronic diseases. One of the factors is the lack of thesepatients involvement in the treatment decision-making process andsuboptimal health literacy (Connet al., 2014).Another factor is the physicians prescribing complex medicines, thecommunication barriers, the ineffective communication of theinformation related to the medicines’ adverse effect. Health caresystems also can play a role in facilitating poor medical adherenceby facilitating limited access to healthcare as well as thenonexistence of health information technology. Erickson theory ofdevelopment, as well as bloom taxonomy aspect, will play asignificant role in guiding the teaching plan as the documentanalyzes.

TheErickson theory of development asserts that as people attain the ageof 65 years and above two main aspects namely despair and egointegrity usually play an integral role in the lives of these seniorcitizens. In this age, the usually slow down their productivity andstart exploring life as a retired individual. The nature of the lifethey have lived plays a vital role in the way these people willhandle issues of their lives. These people usually contemplate theiraccomplishments and develop as sense of integrity if they considerhaving lived a successful life (Kivnick&amp Wells, 2013).However, if they may feel to have lived unproductive lives, they tendto feel very guilty and dissatisfied with the life they have lived.This facilitates the development of despair which leads to depressionand hopelessness. These factors play a pivotal role in the behaviorof these people. It is hence crucial to put them into considerationwhen developing a teaching plan that will aim at influencing adiabetic patient with a bad habit of non-compliance to medication.

Thebloom taxonomy concept will be the concept or teaching mode that willbe used to address this behavior. It will, however, put intoconsideration Erickson development theory so as to address thataspect comprehensively. This will be made possible a one on oneinterview with this patient an aspect that will help the medicalpractitioner to understand the mind of this patient (Sacco,2013).From hence it will be easy to determine the real factor contributingto the poor adherence to medication. Similarly, it will be easy tohelp the patient cope once it becomes evident the cause of thisbehavior. According to the Bloom taxonomy, the user is supposed firstto remember which entails recalling or recognizing. In this aspect,the medical practitioner will recognize the fact that this patient isa senior citizen and hence according to Erickson’s developmenttheory either ego integrity or despair could be influencing thisbehavior.

Thesecond step advocated by the taxonomy is to understand. This refersaspects such as interpreting, classifying and inferring. Forunderstanding to come into play, the practitioner has to interrogatethe patient. The patient is likely to make statements like “I havedone my job well hence I am willing to die rather than live onmedicine.” Similarly, he or she can say that “I am worthless andI prefer to die.” In these two statements, the medical practitionerwill acquire an understanding of the factor which has influenced hisor her current behavior (Sacco,2013).It will give the practitioner a green light of concluding the majorfactor that has facilitated this behavior.

Afterunderstanding the issue influencing the behavior of the patient, thenext step that follows according to Bloom taxonomy is the applicationof measures. Application entails implementation or execution ofcertain measures. In this scenario implementation of the learningtheories will help this patient to cope with the situation anddevelop an attitude that will help him or her develop adherence tomedication (Kivnick&amp Wells, 2013).The cognitive learning theory, social learning theory, and humanisticlearning theory apply to these patients in the attempts to help themadhere to medication as the doctor had prescribed.

Humanisticlearning theory

Thehumanistic learning theory that was created by Carl Rogers is one ofthe applicable learning theories. It can also be termed as aperson-centered therapy or theory. One of the basic ideas this theorycreates is the conditions of worth as well as the notion of tendencyactualization. According to Rogers, the society tends to apply worthconditions (Salihah&amp Kong lai, 2014).This idea creates a concept that people are supposed to behave in aparticular acceptable manner so as to be termed as worth. Accordingto the Erickson’s development theory, this is the ego integrityversus despair. This patient might be considering his or her life aseither worthy or worthless and hence decide to refrain adhering tomedication. Application of this theory will aim at triggering thesepatient’s minds to conceptualize the fact that irrespective thenature of their past life, their lives is still valuable. Adherenceto medication should be a paramount factor that will be considered asa worthy initiative. This is based on the fact that failure to adhereto medication will cause death that will be unjustifiable since he orshe could have done something to prevent this death.

SocialLearning Theory

Thesocial learning theory asserts that learning is a cognitive processwhich tends to take place in the social context. It also explainsthat it can take place through direct instructions or mereobservation. However, it has the power to influence the behavior ofsomeone either positively or negatively. Aspects such as rewards andpunishments which are termed as vicarious reinforcement also play asignificant role in teaching socially. This theory is also applicablein the life of a patient who has adopted a bad behavior of resistingtaking medicine. The medical practitioners can simply give him/herinstructions in a manner that will make him/her understand that thebehavior is unacceptable (Sacco,2013).Similarly, they can develop a social platform that will help thepatient to acquire answers to all the questions he or she could behaving related to his/her condition. A platform that will help thispatient to interact with other patients who have been in thatcondition can also greatly help in modifying the behavior of thispatient.

Cognitivelearning theory

Thistheory has been employed so as to explain the mental processes asthey get influenced by the extrinsic and intrinsic factors whichcontribute the learning in that individual. In this scenario despairand ego integrity are the major factors likely to influence thebehavior of these patients. The theory implies that various processesrelated to learning are explainable by the analysis of mentalprocesses first. It hence posits that effective cognitive processesmakes learning easier and hence allows the storage of new informationin an individual’s memory for a long time (Kivnick&amp Wells, 2013).

Thereis a wealth of information related to the power of medications,nutrition, weight management and exercise to patients living withchronic diseases diabetes inclusive (Salihah&amp Kong lai, 2014).However, patients need to be taught as well as motivated so as toadhere to the therapy. The cognitive learning theory will play apivotal role in helping these patients to adhere with the doctor’sprescription. On top of making these patients understand thenecessity of adhering to doctor’s prescription, the theory willalso motivate these patients and giving them hope that they have alife to live. The motivation will enable them to overlook the aspecteither despair or ego integrity that could be influencing their lifeand concentrate on life that is of value too.

Thenext step that needs to be applied according to the bloom taxonomy isthe analysis aspect. This aspect utilizes factors likedifferentiation, organization and attributing. This step will help inanalyzing the learning theories and organize them so that they canbring out the best in the lives of these patients. Cognitive learningtheory is different from the other theories as a result of thepotential they have of transforming the behavior of these patients(Connet al., 2014).On top of the factors that come into play as a result of the age asadvocated in Erickson’s development theory ignorance might alsoinfluence the behavior of these patients. This is therefore, the corelearning theory that aims at bearing significant results intransforming the behavior of the patient. The other theories also areequally important in transforming the behavior of the patient sincethis is the ultimate goal of the teaching plan.

Thenext step according to Bloom taxonomy is evaluation. This involvesaspects such as checking and criticizing. In this scenario,evaluation will aim at assessing the effectiveness of the learningtheories in changing the behavior which is non-adherence toadherence. The patient’s attitude towards his or her life will playa significant role in evaluating the progress of the patient. Theteaching plan will have succeeded when the patient will startappreciating his or her life and acknowledge that he or she deservesto live irrespective of the past life’s condition (Salihah&amp Kong lai, 2014).The practitioner will, therefore, note the patient’s perception ofhis/her life at the initial stage of the teaching plan since this isthe main factor revealing the evidence of whether the patient isready to adhere to medication or not. Once the patient appreciatesthe value of his or her life, the learning theory will be consideredto have succeeded. If the patient’s perception hence the badbehavior will not have changed, the practitioner will be forced tocome with another plan that will help in ensuring the patient adheresto medication.

Thefinal stage in the bloom taxonomy is creation. Creation entailsaspects like generation, planning as well as production. For thisbehavior to be handled comprehensively, a plan will be essential. Theteaching plan will generate a program that will encompass all thelearning theories holistically and ensure that patients are subjectedto a program that will aim at encouraging them to adhere tomedication through diverse techniques at ago. In other words the planaims at incorporating all the learning theories at once so as toaddress the behavior of the patient effectively (Connet al., 2014).


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Kivnick,H. Q., &amp Wells, C. K. (2013). Untapped Richness in Erik H.Erikson’s Rootstock. Thegenorontologist 55(6).

Sacco,R. G. (2013). Re-Envisaging the Eight Developmental Stages of ErikErikson: The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM). Journalof Educational and Developmental Psychology 3(1)

Salihah,M. &amp Kong lai S. O. (2014). Diabetes knowledge and medicationadherence among geriatric patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.InternationalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 6(3)