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MartinLuther King Jr “I Have a Dream Speech”

MartinLuther King speech &quotI Have a Dream&quot is the most well-knownpart where he disclosed his ideas for freedom and jobs. Luther`sspeech &quotI Have a Dream&quot starts with a reference of pointinga great hope for Africans Americans, who experienced injustices,regardless of the hope, Luther clearly stated that more work wasessential for the African Americans to have freedom in their country.He insists on the importance of fighting for brotherhood as well asthe democracy. Luther pointed out that once you start something thereis no point of leaving because it is just a beginning of struggle buthe recommends that one cannot overcome a fight with violence but withdignity.

MartinLuther`s speech ‘I Have a Dream` is an American dream because herequired racial justice for the black community. The speech also gavethe nation the summary of understanding the political and socialdisruptions of the time expressing what was happening at that time.Also, Luther argued passionately that all people possess equalcapabilities that were not the case in America at that time.

Thespeech states that the reason Martin Luther was in Birmingham isbecause of the injustice declaring that he was mindful of allcommunities and states. He said that he could not stay in Atlanta andnot concerned with the whereabouts in Birmingham. He defended hisBirmingham interest because of his feeling of injustice having inmind that something that disturbs one directly also affects anotherindirectly. Martin Luther`s evidence that made people believe in hisspeech is that the freedom he talked about was for the good of thewhole nation that both white and black will join hands and have theliberty of expressing what they came across without fear. This isevident when he says that let freedom reigns in every nation.

References

King,Martin Luther. TheAmerican Dream.Martin Luther King, Jr. Center, 1961.

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PublicSpeaking Skills in Accountancy Profession

Publicspeaking is a very important art of skills that has to be mastered byevery professional person regardless of the type of profession. Aftergraduating from UMSL, I plan to pursue a profession in accountancy.This occupation is somehow over flooded but it is as well verymarketable when one knows how to play their roles in a right manner.In his book ‘The Art of Public speaking (12thEdition), Stephen E. Lucas explains how this art is just as vital asthe business itself. It explains how every student is supposed to bea better public speaker through quite a number of explanations he hasput across. These explanations are quite clear, though conventionalas well as contemporary theories put across by Stephen E. Lucas.Thisbook talksabout the most essentialfeatures of public speaking, as well asethics, purpose, organization, vocal variety, body language, audienceanalysis, and many others.

Inthe field of accountancy, one might think that public speaking is nota fundamental aspect. But this occupation, just like any otheroccupation, requires articulated public speaking in order to succeed.In chapter one of this book, Stephen E. Lucas gives a vivid exampleof the importance of one being in a position to publicly speak his orhers ideas. He says, “Onewho forms a judgment on any point but cannot explain it might as wellnever have thought at all on the subject.” [ CITATION Ste15 l 1033 ].This is a saying from an ancient leader from Greek. This leader makesit crystal clear the fundamentals of being in a position to publiclyspeak one’s ideas. In the field of accountancy, ideas are the corefundamentals of this occupation. Not being able to publicly speak outthese ideas will bring havoc to the business and profession.

Ethicsis an important aspect in the field of accountancy. Being ethicalmeans that being in a position to behave in an ethical manner all thetime and not only when one thinks it is opportune [ CITATION Ste15 l 1033 ].Ethics are nothing less than ones private and public life as well. Inthe field of accountancy, I may apply this concept of ethics bymaking sure that I be ethical always even when the choices are hardto make. There is as well an aspect of fear when it comes to publicspeaking. Stephen Lucas says that one would rather be in a coffinthan give eulogy. Sitting on ideas for the fear of speaking can killa dream. This is as well an important aspect in accountancy. I wouldapply this art of public speaking by driving away fear from myjuniors and explaining to them the importance of one speaking theirmind out.

Youraudience matters a lot in public speaking just as it is in the fieldof accountancy. One cannot be able to come up with a good speech ifthey do not understand their audience. Stephen Lucas says, “It isalmost impossible to prepare a good speech without keeping constantlyin mind the people for whom it is intended”[ CITATION Ste15 l 1033 ].In accounting field, knowing the people you intend to speak to helpsyou to analyze your points and know exactly what to say. Basically,understand the demographics of the people you are speaking to. Thisleads to good leadership skills and motivation. Summed up, I willapply the art of public speaking in accountancy because it isfundamental aspect.

WorkCited

Lucas,Stephen. TheArt of Public Speaking.12th ed. Boston, Mass.: McGraw Hill, 2015. Print.

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DesignAnalysis

Eversince I was young, I have had a deep great desire of becoming adesigner. It is worth noting that, I used to admire the work of DavidCarson, Paula Scher and Stefan Sagmeister. The three are graphicdesigners who have made a huge impact in designing field. DavidCarson is well known due to his innovation in magazine design as wellas the application of experimental typography. On other hand, PaulaScher is a design tutor, painter and graphic designer as well thefirst female principal at pentagram, whereby she enrolled in 1991.Stefan Sagmeister is a typographer and graphic designer as well asthe founder of design firm, known as Sagmeister &amp Walsh Inc.These three philanthropists have influenced me in a great manner.

Thethree designers are very crucial in shaping my career path as well assource of motivation. When I look at their work, I normally getjealous, and feel, I can also provide such awesome work. Theirdesigns are so unique from other designers, thus it reminds me of theimportance of originality. For example, when I look at Carson’swork on magazine, name “Ray Gun,” he included a lot typographicand layout style, which are very admirable and unique. This clearlydemonstrates the highest level of creativity and passion.

Apartfrom artistic work, my three mentors have also contributed greatly tosocial activities. They engage in charity, where they assist theneediest people by providing them with the necessarily basic needs.In addition, they also assist individuals to pay for medical bills.It is worth noting that, these three designer have, in a big way,brought relevance to the world socially, emotionally and eveneconomically not only to me in some way, but to others as well. It isworth noting that, the three are important because they have elevatedmany people from the level of extreme poverty to the level, wherethey are empowered to better lives and alleviate poverty in otherpeople. Medical vaccines have become more accessible to many peopleand as technology advances, so does the importance of fundingfoundation.

From the above three designers, I am more than motivated to carryforward with my desire of being a designer. All I need to do isstrategize and start where I am to make a difference, however little,in someone’s life. I can start by giving out a little food, someclothing and even sponsoring a needy child to go school and this willmake a whole difference. I strongly believe that, changing someone’slife can have an impact to many others.

IfI get an opportunity of joining this college, it will be a dreamcomes true. Since my early childhood, I have always practice arts,though my parent did want me to be an artist. To be honest, I had adifficult time in persuading them that, art was my passion.Fortunately, they both gave me a green light to pursue my dreams. Iam sure the knowledge and skills I will acquire from this institutionwill definitely enhance my artistic work. I will exploit theknowledge and skills acquired by empowering other in the society. Iwill also use my artistic work to communicate and send messages tothe word. In addition, since this will be my career, I make a livingout of it. It will be a great honor to join your intuition. Knowledgeis power, and I can only acquire it through learning!

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Typesof television comedies

Atelevision comedy can be described as an aired play or even moviethat has a character who is humorous in nature. Comedies usually endin happy or cheerful ways. It could also be used to refer to somedramatic work whereby the dominant element is a ceremonial conquestover circumstances that are adverse. This normally results to aconclusion that is light, successful in a comic way (Rozik,2011).

Growthof television comedy

Thegrowth of dramatic comedy was out of exuberant choruses and dialoguefrom the feasts of the god of the Greek Dionysus on the rites offertility. Old comedy was known to a theater in ancient Greece as achain of scenes that are loosely connected where a particularcondition was exploited thoroughly via fantasy, parody, farce andeven satire. The scenes were usually connected by a chorus andself-standing characters. The series coming to an end in a unitycelebration expressed lyrically.

Thecomedy show ‘I love Lucy’ has been historically cited to havebrought revolution to the television comedy industry. The innovationsfound in the show were very many. It was the first California-basedtelevision program instead of being based in the New York. It wasdone on film instead of being live and made by telerecording from atelevision screen. It was the first ever program to be done this way.In history, it stands as the first program that was dramatic and wasstaged before an audience in the live studio, being sequentiallyfilmed by using the technique of three cameras. From this program, apattern for situation comedies was set. Even today’s comedy borrowstips from that first ever program. From that time henceforth, thetrend has always been, women as flighty, forgetful and disorganizedpeople though extremely clever, men always considered loud andresentful, friends always as swindles and accomplices.

Generally,all the dramatic works we see on screen today, have an origin. Adevelopment on an idea that gave birth to what is seen today and whatshall be seen in future.

Comedytypes

Comedycan be divided into various genres as not all comedy scripts can havea similar theme, setting or even mode of presentation. They can beclassified into multiple categories.

Thedivision of comedy into multiple genres is based on the humor source,the method used by the producers to deliver the piece and the contextin which the piece is delivered. The classifications tend to overlapand most people who do comedy can easily fit into the multiplegenres. A good example is the deadpan comics. It falls underobservational boom comedy as well as the black comedy or under bluecomedy to show the contrast in insidiousness and morbidity of thejoke without showing emotion. Below are the proposed genres ofcomedy.

Alternativecomedy

Inthis genre of comedy, there is a deviation from the archaic punchline jokes which contains a lot of other comedy forms, for example,observation, surrealism, slapstick, satire and improvisation. Somenotable examples of such are Dan Harmon, Dave Gorman, Linda Smith,Alan Davis, Jeremy Hardy, Adrian Edmonson, Stewart Lee, Jo Brad, RonSparks, Kristen Schaal and many others.

BlueComedy

Bluecomedy can be tagged as that which displays the nature of beingtypically sexual. It uses language that is unclean often based on thebelief that one gender is inherently superior to people of the othergender (sexism). Also, they employ racism in their acts and shareviews that do not support relationships between individuals of thesame sex. Some examples of comedians that fall under this genre are,Jim Jefferies, Chris Rock, Benard Manning, Jim Davidson, SarahSilverman, Redd Foxx, Martin Lawrence, Jim Davidson, Chappelle’sshow, David Attell, Geroge Lopez, Doug Stanhope, Seth MacFarlaneamong others.

CringeComedy

Thistype of comedy is the kind that is based on embarrassment. The humorin this genre of comedy comes from inappropriate actions or words.This genre is most popular in film and also in television shows. Itusually features in stand-up comedy as well. The TV shows that haveapplied this style are, for example, Family Guy, The Inbetweeners,and The Office, Curb your Enthusiasm, Peep Shows, The Proposal amongothers. This style is also common to comedians such as Ricky Gervais,Larry David, Bob Saget, Alan Patridge, Richard Herring, Rufus Houndand many more.

BlackComedy

Thistype of comedy deals with subjects that are usually disturbingexpressed in a humorous way. Such disturbing thoughts as terrorism,rape cases, death, drug deals, war and some are related to horrorgenre of movies (Rozik,2011).This is common to the following comedians, Jim Norton, Jimmy Carr,Dennis Leary, Richard Pryor, Bill Hicks, Chris Rush, Ricky Gervais,Trey Parker, Seth MacFarlane, Frankie Boyle, Penn and Teller,Christopher Titus, George Carling, David Cross just to name a few.

ImprovisationalComedy

Thistype of comedy is that which the comics who are rarely staged plantheir routines out. It is shortened as ‘improv’ sometimes.Television shows that are common and fall under this genre includeshows like, Curb Your Enthusiasm, Thank God You’re Here, and WhoseLine Is It Anyway. Comedians who commonly use this style are thelikes of, Robin Williams, Paul Merton, Drew Carey, Greg Proops, JohnSessions, Tony Slattery, Josie Lawrence, Wayne Brad, Chip Einstein,Larry David, Tina Fey, Amy Poehler and John Sessions. The list isendless.

Mockumentary

Thisis a type of parody, a work of performance which provides animitation of another work or performance. It uses irony or ridiculeand employs the conventions of the style used in a documentary.Examples of TV shows that are known for this kind of comedy include,Borat, Angry Boys, Electric Apricot, Quest for Festeroo, Come FlyWith Me, This is Spinal Tap, Parks and Recreation and The Officeamong many others.

Spoof

Inthis genre, there is a recreation of a particular book, play or afilm for the sake of humor. It can be used in the ridicule and inmaking fun of a certain production. Examples of TV shows that exhibitthis kind of humor are Hot Shots, Shriek, Frankie Boyle’s TramadolNights and Look Around You. Comedians such as Mel Brooks, Mitchelle,and Webb, French and Saunders among others.

Conclusion

Fromthis essay, it is clear that comedy has undergone a lot oftransitions to be able to show such a broad range of genres, thanksto the innovative comic minds. Without comedy, the world would be adull place because it provides a platform to unwind and reducestress. All the genres show a sense of creative imagination.

WorksCited

Rozik,Eli.&nbspComedy:A Critical Introduction.Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2011. Print

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CellPhones are Dangerous to Humans

Intheir relatively short history, mobile phones have been a source ofall manner of detrimental effects on health and morals in thesociety. Despite the adverse repercussions of their use, humans haveintegrated them in their businesses to enhance diversification intheir social lives as well as improve interaction. Although cellphones have numerous benefits on humans including makingcommunication convenient and enhancing social connection, they areharmful to human beings as they cause chronic illnesses such ascancer, high blood pressure and distraction of drivers that result inloss of lives.

Canceris one of the primary concerns of cell phones to health. According toa study conducted in Kuwait on health risks associated with usingcell phones, they can cause brain damage they may cause cancer overtime (Nedaa 193). David Reynard was the initiator of the debate. Hefiled a lawsuit in Florida on allegation that extended use a cellphone caused his wife’s fatal brain cancer. Although a federalcourt dismissed the lawsuit for lack of valid scientific evidence, itsparked extensive investigation for a possible connection. Validityof the evidence is not very strong since research conducted hasmostly been inconclusive. However, it has been successful in theprovision of beginning data on the argument. The main outcomes arethe possibility of the radiation from the cell phones being able tocause cancer. There have been increased risks of brain cancerespecially to the side of the head where the phone is constantly used(Nedaa 198). Apart from cancer, cell phone causes short-term memoryloss and sudden confusion (Nedaa 199). Reports based on animal andhuman experiments have shown adverse effects of cell phone radiationupon exposure (Agarwal, Makker, Varghese, Desai and Mouradi 148). Theoutcome is reinforced by the ‘DefenceEvaluation and Research Agency scientists’’findings. The investigators exposed slices of a rat’s brains toelectromagnetic radiation. The brain activity of the slices wasaffected consequently. In 2005, Nedaa explained that constant use ofcell phones resulted in extreme irritation, increased carelessness,forgetfulness and a clicking sound in the ears. A Russian scientisthas delineated a condition referred to as the ‘microwave sickness’characterized by increased agitation, fatigue, reduced intellectualactivity, problems in heart palpitations and dizziness (Nedaa200).Cell phones should, therefore, be re-modeled to reduce theimpacts of radiation to human health.

Bloodpressure of humans is increased because of constant use of cellphones. A study revealed that human blood pressure rose by 5-10mmHg,with a significant decrease in a capillary perfusion, due tovasoconstriction after volunteers were exposed to Radiofrequencyelectromagnetic waves. The illustration intended to show thenegative effects of using the cell phones to the blood pressure of anindividual. It also indicated that extensive use of the gadgets ledto significant increase in heart beat rate among the individualsinvolved. Also, it has been associated with altering the cognitivefunction of individuals reading to slow rates of reactions to things(Agarwal et al. 150). On its effects on male fertility, Agarwal etal. (151) assert that use of cell phones decrease the sperm motility.Human testes require a physiological temperature of two degrees lowerthan body temperature for most favorable production of sperms.High-intensity radio frequency, result in heating properties thatlead to thermal effects on the testes which affects the reproductivefunction (Agarwal et al. 151). Moreover, the impact of these gadgetson the eyes cannot be underestimated. Continued use of the mobilephones strains the eyes, with reported cases of eye problems, such asaching (Agarwal et al. 154).

Theuse of technological gadgets (such as the cell phones) is a potentialsource for diversion of the drivers’ attention (Green). Greenargues that cell phones’ usage by drivers reduce awareness andjudgment. He adds that drivers who use their phones while drivinghave low concentration like the drunken drivers .According toresearch conducted by the NationalHighway Traffic Safety(NHTSA), in every four fleet vehicle accidents one is a consequenceof the driver’s distraction. The act impairs the performance of thedriver, slows down the reaction time and reduces the accuracy ofcontrol and vehicle steering. The consequences of such incidents areaccidents that result in loss of lives and destruction of property(Green). Handheld – rather than hands-free phones – impairperformance. However, this is not an absolute solution to safetysince the hands-free phones also weaken the mental ability of thedriver by shifting their focus to the conversation. A wirelesscommunication study reveals the conversation itself is the mostprevalent behavior associated with mobile phones related crashes. Thereasoning behind the argument is that lengthy conversations take awaythe attention of the driver on the road (Green).Laws governingdrivers on the use of cell phones should be reintroduced andreinforced to reduce this negative consequences.

Walker,Sanci and Temple-Smith (8) use a story to illustrate the hazards ofcell phones among the youth. The characters are teenagers. Daniel,who is Abbeys boyfriend for a span of two months, requests Abbey tosend him ‘noodz’. For fear of separation, Abbey sends her nudephotos to the boyfriend who assures her not to show to other people.Unfortunately, he is unable to contain the excitement. As a result,he shares the photo with his friend and it later goes viral foreveryone in the school to see (Walker et al. 8). The anecdote is arevelation of the dangers of using cell phones among young people ina sexualized world that is primarily driven by technology. Youngpeople are the most helpless to fall victims of negative consequencesof using cell phones for socialization because they do not realizewhen to stop or when to create their boundaries until things get outof hand. The freedom, availability and flexibility of these gadgetsare also contributing factors of this unfortunate evil. Walker et al.attribute this factor to the incorporation of Bluetooth, webcam andtext messaging features in the mobile phones (Walker et al. 9). Thefunctions facilitate sharing of sexual images to cyberspace easilyand rapidly. Since the internet does not forget, the viral images maypotentially destroy future career prospects and relationships. Theviral spread of such images in Abbeys case resulted in social,psychological and legal consequences. For some victims, extremecases, they resolve to commit suicide due to the accompanying shame.Unlike the case of Abby, who sent her image out of her free will,Daniel, the boyfriend who sent the nude picture without the consentof his girlfriend, reveals nonconsensual sexting. Nonconsensualsexting is also evident among the youth who share compromisingpictures without the approval of the owner. Legal claims more oftenput the perpetrators of such acts behind bars while the victimssuffer from flawed reputations in the society (Walker et al.10).Consequently, young people should constantly be made aware of thedangers of these devices to curb such occurrences that inflict shameon victims.

Youngpeople who have used cell phones as a means of interaction havediverged from the norm and adopted antisocial skills that they regardas normal. The connection between young people and their gadgets hasbecome integral. They conduct most of their social life by use ofcell phones that gives them a false feeling of having plenty offriends. It has lead to many young people being detached from theirfamilies since they lack time to sit and share (Walker et al.11).These complicated gadgets have generated avenues for young peopleto create and share pornographic videos. This practice has eaten intothe moral fabric of the society, promoting vices that were heretoforeunacceptable. Accessing such material has become easy, and it haseven become easier to share them due to the many channels of sharingavailable (Walker et al. 9). Sadly, even in households where parentslimit internet access to regulate the access of pornographicmaterials among their children, mobile phones have provided an easyand cheap way to accept it. The unorthodox act has led to many youngpeople finding themselves behind bars, paying huge fines and facingother forms of punishment the courts give them (Walker et al. 12).

Certainly,cell phones have become vital in our day-to-day life activities. Theyhave become part human lives in degrees they never imagined possible.The gadgets were originally aiding in communication. However, theyhave revolutionized people’s operations. They are applied in thebusinesses and have gone a long way in bridging geographicalbarriers. However, as illustrated in the essay, even with theseadvantages, there are numerous dangers and hazards associated withcell phones. They have also been linked to negative health issues,decay in moral behaviors, negatively affecting male fertility anddangerous driving among other undesired effects not discussed herein.Even with their advantages, they are without a doubt dangerous, andmaybe it is time to have a reflection on whether the benefitsoutweigh the costs.

WorksCited

Agarwal,Ashok, Kartikeya Makker, Alex Varghese, Nisarg R. Desai and RandMouradi. “Cell Phones: Modern Man’s Nemesis?” ReproductiveBiomedicine Online18.1 (2009): 148-157.

Green,Marc. “Do Mobile Phones Pose an Unacceptable Risk?” QuestiaMagazineNov. 2001. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.

https://www.questia.com/magazine/1G1-80554561/do-mobile-phones-pose-an-unacceptable-risk-adequacy

Nedaa,Al-Khamees. “A Study in Kuwait Of Health Risks Associated WithUsing Cell Phones.” CollegeStudent Journal41.1 (2007): 187-202.

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/College-Student-Journal/161282242.html

Walker,Shelley, Lena Sanci, and Meredith Temple-Smith. “Sexting and YoungPeople: Experts’ Views.” YouthStudies Australia 30.4(2011): 8-16.

http://journals.sfu.ca/ysa/index.php/YSA/article/view/129/145

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Knowyour Rights

Anexample of a scenario where individuals interact with the police isin the case of a traffic stop. A passenger bus leaves a city packedwith passengers headed for some countryside destination. Each andevery individual has paid their own fare as required anticipating theend of a very long journey. Along the way, in the middle of nowhere,they encounter corrupt traffic police officers. The officers try toask for a bribe but the driver refuses to give them because he knowshis vehicle is in a good condition, his driver’s license intact andupdated.

Thefurious police officers make the driver pull his bus to the side ofthe road, roughened the driver out, making him sit at the side of theroad in cuffs and begin inspecting the vehicle slowly in scrutiny forany damages and errors. The passengers begin feeling like they arebeing delayed so they voice their complaint. The officers continuewith their work at their pace and then one of them claims that theysmell marijuana. The driver is very sure that he had no marijuana inhis possession, so are the passengers. As the police dog sniffs, somemarijuana is found under one of the seats. When nobody owns up, allthe passengers are escorted to the police station after someharassment. It was evidently a crime imposed on the passengers.

Billof Rights

Thebill of rights of the USA were edited in 1971. It is made up of thefirst ten amendments of the constitution. They were written by JamesMadison following several calls which came from states to enhanceprotection constitutionally for the people’s liberty. This billputs down some specific limitations on the governmental power (Billof Rights).

Ourdiscussion however, majors on the fourth, fifth and sixth amendmentsexplained below in relation to the scenario that has been describedabove:

Fourthamendment

Thisgives people security against violations in their houses, effects andpapers as disagrees with unnecessary searches and seizures. It goesahead to state that there shall be no warrants issued unless uponprobable cause which should be supported by affirmation or oath. Theaffirmation should particularly describe the places intended for thesearch and the people or the things that are meant to be seized (Billof Rights).

Thedriver had a right to ensure that his bus wasn’t searched by thepolice. He remained calm and did not give the police any evidence ofguilt. The police had no right to roughen the driver out of the busand harassing him after showing so much gentleness and composure.They had no written affirmation that said that that particular buswas to be searched (Bill of Rights).

FifthAmendment

Thefifth-amendment puts a right against being held to answer for acapital, or even an infamous crime. This should only occur in case ofa presentment or a formal accusation for a criminal offence broughtto a jury. There are few exceptions to this amendment however,typical examples are cases which arise in the land forces, navalforces or the militia, when one is in service, during times of war oreven those circumstances that put the public in danger. The bill goesahead to state that no person should be put in danger of life or limbas subject for the same crime twice. Nobody shall be forced to be awitness against themselves, nor be subjected to life deprivation,property or liberty minus a proper law process due. Private propertyshall not be taken to be used for public purposes without beingcompensated.

Inthis case, the police made the passengers go to witness againstthemselves. Owning up the possession of marijuana which did notbelong to any of them. They were made to answer for an infamous crimewhich only meant that all of them pay. The act of witnessing againstself is only allowed in the case of formal presentation before agrand jury. Also there was no proper following of the law process.

SixthAmendment

Thisamendment mainly talks about all the accused enjoying the right to atrial that is fast enough and public, by a jury found within thestate and district where the crime was committed. The jury should beimpartial and not biased in any way. The accused has a right toinformation about the cause of accusation as well as nature. Heshould allow himself to be confronted by those witnessing against himas he also is entitled to a compulsory process of obtaining witnessesto testify in favor of him. Counsel for his defense should beprovided (Bill of Rights).

Thisamendment was not applied in the scenario at all. The police accuseda group of innocent passengers to be in possession of marijuana andafter making them to wait so long at the road. The accused were neverallowed the right to seek witnesses like those who inspected the busbefore it left the city. They were only taken to the station and paidtheir way out instead of being tried before an impartial public jury(Bill of Rights).

Tenrules of dealing with the police.

Ofthe ten rules of dealing with the police, there were some thatdirectly applied to the scenario mentioned above. The following is ananalysis of their relevance to the scenario and whether they wereviolated or followed.

  • Always be calm and cool. Keep your attitude low and cool. In the scenario, the driver remained calm and composed. The police however had to use some force on him because they wanted a bribe. The passengers were however tensed and by complaining, they did not follow the first rule of dealing with the police (10 Rules for Dealing with Police, April 2012).

  • You have a right to refuse searches by saying ‘I don’t consent to searches.’ Refusing to be searched does not prove guilt. If police find anything illegal after you refused to be searched, it may have you arrested. If the police search you without consent, the lawyer is allowed to challenge that. This rule was violated by the police. The driver had no mistake but they insisted on searching the bus. The driver might not have been aware of his rights and that is why he fell victim of imposed crime. Pretending to find marijuana, which is illegal, however, gave the police a chance to arrest the passengers (10 Rules for Dealing with Police, April 2012).

  • One should not allow the police to trick them. They may do this to ensure that one’s stand wavers then use that against them. The police tried to trick the victims in this scenario into accepting ownership of marijuana but they did not accept to be tricked. They maintained their stand (10 Rules for Dealing with Police, April 2012).

  • In cases where one feels as though they are being detained by the police, they are free to ask politely whether they are free to go. The passengers did not abide by this rule. They grumbled and were not polite in asking. The police also took advantage of them and detained them too (10 Rules for Dealing with Police, April 2012).

  • One is advised never to run away from the police. This could be reason enough to prove guilty. Neither the passengers nor the driver ran away from police so all of them followed this rule.

Conclusion

Thedriver and passengers in the scenario did not pay much attention totheir rights when they encountered the police. They might have brokena few rules to dealing with the police which made them fall victimsof what could be deemed as harassment. This calls for each and everyperson to be aware of their rights when it comes to police in theirline of duty.

WorksCited

BILLOF RIGHTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (1791).Retrieved 23rdNov, 2015 from

http://www.billofrightsinstitute.org/founding-documents/bill-of-rights/

10Rules for Dealing with Police (April 2012). Retrieved 23rdNov, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s4nQ_mFJV4I

LawStudent `schools` Police Officer on His Gun Rights (Feb 2013).Retrieved 23rdNov, 2015 from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skpfzZ5vz14

Breakfastin Collinsville (with Michael Reichert) (Mar, 2012). Retrieved 23rdNov, 2015 from

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Therole of Colonel Aureliano in politics

WhenColonel Aureliano was a child the personal traits he had seemed to benormal. These personal traits were being shy, much focused kid andvery smart. When he grows up eventually, these traits developed wouldlater make lead people to a civil war. Colonel Aureliano privatepersonality was more of the same as when he becomes the commander ofthe rebelling forces. He wasn’t much as people’s person becausehe preferred being locked in Melquiades room studying goldsmithing.The book doesn’t tell us much of how he was as a kid so as tocompare with how he became to a rebel leader. When Aureliano growsup, he comes to marry a nine-year-old girl. She was young girl whocouldn’t reciprocate of what is expected of her as a wife. Thenine-year-old girl did not even like Colonel Aureliano. There arethings that showed colonel could make a good political leader onefact was how he maintained his fishes showed that he could perseverewith his political cause (Swanson, 57). He started by starting over30 separate rebellions all over Colombia during the war. The love hehad for remedies in one-way or another showed that he was romanticmeaning he could care or an idealist. This shows how devoted hedevelops to overturning the corrupt traditionalist administration. Healso deserts the leaders of the liberal party when he finds them tobe involved in realpolitik. When Aurelian gets the power he suddenlychanges, he gets a tendency to avoid people more than he used to dojust because of real power. Examples are when he declares no oneshould be around him, and it went to an extent that a circle wasdrawn around him to avoid contact with the people. It is through

Therole of Melquiades about science or pseudo-science and technology

Melquiadeswas one of a band of gypsies who liked to visit Macondo annually inthe month of March (Swanson, 62). He used to come to Macondo to showthe people the wonderful items that the world could offer. Theseitems would come from all over the world. It is noted that Melquiadeshad influence over the family that founded Macondo. He leads thegypsies to bring new technologies that hastened the modernization ofthe town

Therole of Jose Arcadio Brenda

Thefounder of Macondo who is Jose Arcadio Brenda symbolizes both greatgovernance and the incorruptibility of the primeval world. He playsan important role because he was the first founder of Macondo. Heshows that he was a good and natural explorer and to add more to histraits he found a route between Macondo and the outside world. He isresponsible for trying to push his family to modernity thus hepreferred to confine himself to his laboratory rather than spectacleon flying carpet that the gypsies have gotten. The passion he had formodern scientific ideas led him to speed up the end of Macondo`sEden-like state. In the process of the exploiting the modernscientific ideas, it led him to become mad. The madness enraged himto a point he thought that he had revealed how to craft perpetualmotion. He was swayed that the same day is reiterating itself overand over. Perpetual motion was not meant for human understandingbecause the human mind could not withstand such ideas and perpetualmotion could only exist where time did not exist. The belief he hadabout perpetual motion is what brings out the fact in the novel thathis descendants believed that he appeared to them as a ghost. Thedescendants believed so, and his presence was felt in Macondo. joseArcadio buenda s seen as the pioneer of almost everything in Macondo

Howthe train can be associated with technology in the story

Theconstruction of the railroad that arrived in Macondo had both itsmerits and demerits. The village was thriving before the railroadcame. Therefore, this meant it was more confusing if the railroadwould benefit the people or not. The foreign capitalist come toMacondo and set up a banana plantation in the village, and they alsoestablish a town that they fenced next to Macondo.In the process,Macondo becomes more of a cosmopolitan where we had cinemas,gramophones, luxury imports and prostitutes arrive in the town(Sarmiento &amp Faustino,121). All this factors started to bring asense of chaos and uncontrolled growth in Macondo. From the abovefindings, we can see that the train brought about technology inMacondo. The Macondo people were not exploited by foreigners.Therefore, they did not know much about technology but after therailroad the people started to embrace technology.

Therole Ursula in this story

UrsulaIguaran, the matron of the Buendia family, is responsible for thefamily line to keep going for more than a century with her endlessresilience and power. When Jose acadio Buendia stops being devoted tothe family and civic duties because of his fascination and magictricks gotten from the gypsies, reality dawns on her that someoneneed to take charge, and she had no one but herself.She mainly playsthe role of a traditional, but she is a strong and politicallyperceptive woman. One good example is when her son, the Colonelsentences the best governor of Macondo. She decides to bring themoths of the revolutionary officers to give testimony on Moncada`sbehalf. She goes to protest in the streets politically for therelease of the prisoners. Eventually through her efforts they arereleased. This shows that she had influence over the colonel, andthis showed that she had attained authority and influence by playingthe role of a traditional mother. Even though old age had gotten thebest of her, she still had her physical enthusiasm, uprightness, andmental stability. No one was well equipped like her to be able toshape the honorable man who would reestablish the reputation of thefamily.

Therole of Jose Arcadio II in this story

JoseArcadio II was the oldest son of Jose Arcadio and Ursula Buendia, hehad the desire and bravery equal to that of the colonel. At the ageof 14 years his prodigious sexual development brings uneasiness tohis mother. The uneasiness brought about fears that he was cursedlike his cousin reputed pig’s tail. For her, the oversized sexualorgan seemed to be very unnatural. Later Jose Arcadio marries PilarTernera, who was a macondos fortune teller. The affair between thetwo brings about the birth of a son this frightens Jose Arcadio anddue to the fright he decides to run away with a gypsy girl and herpeople (Dolan et al., 158). Ursula flees from Macondo in search ofhis son. Later Jose Arcadio son is born and is taken care of by hisgrandparents. Jose Arcadio decides to go back home, he is now a fullgrown man and having traveled around the world sixty-five times. Theknowledge acquired Jose Arcadio in his travels make him a marvel tothe women of mocanda He later marries another woman, but the marriagebrought disharmony to Ursula, this forced her to banish them fromever entering their family home. In the process, he moves into thehouse that his son had built and became the feudal lord. Jose Arcadiois seen as a heroic tyrant because he was able to rescue his brotherfrom execution by a firing squad and at the same time he was dislikedbecause he forced people to pay taxes.

Differencesbetween this novel within their stories using technology, science,and politics

Abouttechnology and science only the book One Hundred Years of Solitudetalk about technology and its influence. For example, we are toldthat in the beginning Macondo did not use any technology but afterthe building of the railroad this led to foreigners coming in andbringing new technology with them (Dolan et al., 179). About theother books, it is not evident from the use of technology. When Icome to politics, the three books mainly talk about politicaldisputes that affected their countries that led to people fleeing.The books, works of Martin Fierro and Facundo mainly have politicaldisputes more severe than in one hundred years in solitude.

Relationshipbetween One Hundred Years Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Márquez and z,Barranca Abajo by Florencio Sánchez, Facundo by Domingo FaustinoSarmiento

Therelationship between the above books is that they mainly talk aboutoppression either individually or as a nation. The books involveabout how people flee from their home either because of the crimes orfaults that they committed. For example, in One Hundred Years ofSolitude Jose Arcadio had to flee from due to fright that he had ason. Another example is in the works of Martin Fierro when Gauchoflees from his military Base and tries to go back home. In Facundo,it talks about the life of Juan Facundo in Argentina and exile. Itcan be concluded that the three books mainly talk about oppression.

Workscited

Dolan,Shimon L., et al. &quotExploratory Study of within-CountryDifferences in Work and Life

GarcíaMárquez (2010): 57-63.

Management4.2 (2004): 157-180.

Sarmiento,Domingo Faustino. Facundo. Vol. 12. Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch,1993.

Swanson,Philip. &quotOne Hundred Years of Solitude.&quot The CambridgeCompanion to Gabriel

ValuesThe Case of Spanish Business Students.&quot International Journal ofCross Cultural

Student’s name

Student’sname:

Professor’sname:

Coursetitle:

Government

PartOne

Theitem county attorney appears under the Commissioners Court agenda butdoes not appear in the Houston City Council agenda. This differenceis derivable from the fact that the commissioner’s court has thelegal jurisdiction to deal with legislative matters while the Houstoncity council lacks the go ahead to handle such matters. For instance,the Houston city council does not have the authorization to come upwith agendas dealing with litigation expenses or having to do withrequesting approval for business participants to terminate previouslysigned contracts (HarrisCounty Commissioners Court Agenda).

PartTwo

  1. Astros owner Jim Crane – 1314 South Blvd

Theproperty appears under the name Neely Franci N with the address 1314south blvd

HoustonTX 77006 has a square footage of the &quotimprovement&quotestimated at 2,204 and a current appraised value of the combined landand improvement of 6,129,575 U.S dollars (HCAD).B.Former Astros first baseman Lance Berkman – 5 Farnham Park Dr

Theowners name is Berkman lance 7 Cara whereas the property address is 5Farnham Park DR with a square footage of the &quotimprovement&quotplaced at 10, 138 whereas the current appraised value of the combinedland and improvement is 2,823,448 dollars (HCAD).C.Houston Texans owner Bob McNair – 1807 River Oaks

Thename Is Mcnair Robert C &amp Janice S, the property address is 1807River Oaks Blvd Houston Tx 77019, the square footage of theimprovement is 12,124 and the the current appraised value of thecombined land and improvement is estimated 10,000,000dollars (HCAD).D.NBA Hall of Famer Clyde &quotThe Glide&quot Drexler, 11635Versailles Lakes Ln

Thename is Drexler Clyde and the property address is 11635 VersaillesLakes LN, the square footage of the &quotimprovement&quot is 6,429whereas the current appraised value of the combined land andimprovement 1,705,000 dollars (HCAD).E.Former United States President George Bush – 9 S West Oak Dr

Nameand property address: the property is under the name Bush G H, theproperty address is 9 S West Oak DR, the square footage of the“improvement” is 6,263 while on the other hand the currentappraised value of the combined land and improvement is 1,787,522dollars (HCAD).F.Socialite Carolyn Farb, 1814 Larchmont Rd

Theproperty is registered under the name “Current Owner”, theproperty address is 1814 Larchmont RD Houston TX 77019, the squarefootage of the &quotimprovement&quot is 6,725 and the currentappraised value of the combined land and improvement is 2,640,000dollars (HCAD).G.Former Astros pitcher Andy Pettitte, 221 E. Lawther Dr

Thename is Pettitte Andrew &amp Laura with the property address 2214 ELawther DR, the square footage of the &quotimprovement&quot isestimated at 12, 425 whereas the current appraised value of thecombined land and improvement is estimated at 932, 467 U.S dollars(HCAD).H.Former Astro pitcher Roger (W Roger) Clemens – 11535 Quail Hollow

Theproperty is under the name Clemens W Roger &amp Debbie L with theaddress 11535 Quail Hollow LN Houston TX 77024, the square footage ofthe &quotimprovement&quot is estimated at 6,956 whereas the currentappraised value of the combined land and improvement is 5,372,400 U.Sdollars (HCAD).I.Super Lawyer Joe Jamail – 3682 Willowick

Theowner name is Jamail Joseph D and the property address is 3682Willowick RD Houston TX 77019, the square footage of the&quotimprovement&quot is estimated 13,757 and the current appraisedvalue of the combined land and improvement is 10,194,545 U.S dollars(HCAD).J.Channel 13 Anchorman Dave Ward- 5403 Broad Oaks Park

Theproperty is under the name David H And Laura S Ward Trust with theaddress 5403 Broad Oaks Park Houston TX 77056, the square footage ofthe &quotimprovement&quot is 5,126 and the current appraised valueof the combined land and improvement is 1,606,625 U.S dollars (HCAD).K.HoustonMayor Annise Parker – 428 Westmoreland Street

Thereare no records under this name or street address.

L.Restaurant owner (Landry`s, etc) Tilman Fertitta – 3800 Willowick

Theproperty is registered under the name Fertitta Tilman J &amp Paigewith the address 3800 Willowick RD Houston TX 77019 and has a squarefootage of the &quotimprovement&quot estimated at 1,760 whereas thecurrent appraised value of the combined land and improvement is18,113,700 (HCAD).M.Restaurant owner (Pappasitos, etc.) Chris Pappas – 7 Patrick Ct

Theproperty appears under the name Pappas Christopher &amp Joan withthe address 7 Patrick CT Houston TX 77024, the square footage of the&quotimprovement&quot is 5,973 whereas the current appraised valueof the combined land and improvement is 1,622,973 U.S dollars(HCAD).N.Criminal Defense Lawyer Rusty Hardin – 2740 Barbara Ln

Nameand property address: The property is under the name Hardin RussellJR &amp Ann E with the address 2740 Barbara LN Houston TX 77005, thesquare footage of the &quotimprovement&quot is 4,628 whereas thecurrent appraised value of the combined land and improvement is1,475,000 U.S dollars (HCAD).O.Former New Jersey mob boss Vincent &quotVinny Ocean&quot Palermo(witness protection program name &quotVincent Cabella&quot) – 9105Memorial Drive

Therecords appearing after record search using both property address andowner name criteria do not match the description given above. P.Houston Astro Hall of Fame member Craig Biggio (under &quotcurrentowner&quot) – 6520 Belmont St

Theproperty appears under the name “Current Owner” with the address6520 Belmont StHouston TX 77005, a square footage of the&quotimprovement&quot estimated at 9,068, and the current appraisedvalue of the combined land and improvement stands at 4,895,000 U.Sdollars (HCAD).

WorksCited

&quotHarrisCounty Commissioners Court Agenda.&quot&nbspHarrisCounty Commissioners Court Agenda.2015. Web. 21 Nov. 2015.

HCAD.2015. Web. 21 Nov. 2015. &lthttp://www.hcad.org/&gt.

Student`s Name

EntrepreneurshipOutline for Management issue

Entrepreneurshipin management provides an opportunity for utilizing availableresources to launch a venture by actively participating in theinvesting process to meet the needs of the customers. This field inmanagement enables one to think like an entrepreneur, possessconsulting skills and build a management team and an overview towrite a business plan for the new business intended for operations.Also, an entrepreneurship outline prepares managers by broadeningtheir career ramping up their knowledge and to all functional areasundertaken for a successful decision making the functional areasinclude accounting, management systems, finance, marketing, industryanalysis and sales.

Entrepreneurshipoutline

  • This is an overview and introduction to entrepreneurship. It involves discovering current entrepreneurs and their achievements. This introductory part facilitates the application of broad to leadership and management functions.

  • Critically analyse and assess available opportunities obtained from the market research and managerial goals.

  • Compare personal characteristics and interests to that of a successful entrepreneur.

  • Identify the sources of support for the entrepreneurs and also for the small businesses.

  • Identify and explain issues that are relevant to entrepreneurs such environment sustainability, intellectual property, social entrepreneur among others.

  • Research and explain the critical factors used in the identification of start-up business ideas incorporating the forms of ownership.

  • Evaluate the basic methods of entering an entrepreneurship venture such as starting or buying a venture among others.

  • Understand the financial, human resource, legal, operations, marketing as well as general management skills necessary for launching and operating a new venture.

  • Identify and understand the critical concepts of business plan regarding entrepreneurship.

  • Identify or seek the financing sources.

  • Appreciate the creativity and the integrity of an entrepreneur as a person.

Student`s Name

GlobalArticle Summaries

Thenewspaper articles that will be summarized herein are a collectionfrom various countries and continents that have a special coverage oftopics such as Environmental geography, Population and settlements,Culture and Diversity, Geopolitical settings in addition to Social/Economic settings of various countries. All the articles areretrieved from the newspapers in their respective countries and havea special reflection of the topics covered above.

On18thNovember 2015, The People’s Daily of China had an article coveringa topic on Environmental Geography. In the article, President Obamaof the US discusses much about the environment with billionaire JackMa, the chairman and founder of the Alibaba group. Mr. Ma, gives anexample of his hometown lake in China that was once vibrant when hewas a toddler but had dried up by the time he was a youth. Throughthis experience, he developed a drive and inner calling to care aboutthe environment and this he did so diligently. He commits about 0.3%of of the Alibaba group revenues to environmental conservation andeven beyond. Mr. Ma, vows to join hands with other wealthyindividuals like Bill Gates to help strongly fight off environmentaldegradation and destruction by reducing the emission of greenhousegases and investing in the production of clean energy. In addition tothat, China has actually partnered with the US to help reducegreenhouse gas emissions.

On17thNovember 2015, The Times Newspaper of India highlighted a specialissue about Population and Settlement aspects of Mumbai India.According to a GIS study conducted in Mumbai, it was found out that,Mumbai has a total of about 3, 293 slum clusters. These slums aresituated at various, places within Mumbai and were found to havecovered a area of about 9,008 acres of land. According to a 2011census conducted in India, the results indicated that 41.5% of Mumbaicity’s population lives in slums which indicated a total of 12.5lakh slum households in the city. The slum clusters were compiled as,332 for K- East, 299 for L-Ward, 243 for M-East, 224 for P-North and195for K-West. There is need for governmental involvement in slumredevelopment but assigned developers had to access about 70% consentfrom the slum dwellers.

On19thNovember 2015, the Vanguard News of Lagos Nigeria posted an articleabout environmental degradation in a constituency in Nigeria. Thearticle was thus touching on Environmental Geography. It was a posthighlighting a statement of the House of Representatives speaker inNigeria that focused on environmental degradation in the Ideato statein Nigeria. The article indicated a situation of massiveenvironmental degradation and poor road network in the area. Thisissue was referred to the house committee to be handled and addressedappropriately.

On9thNovember 2015, the St. Peters Times Newspaper of Russia did have amajor focus on Environmental Geography. In the article as indicatedby the concerned environmental scientists, Russia is projected to belosing about 468 sq meters of land on an annual basis to effects oferosion and the melting of permafrost. The erosion as found to bemore pronounced in the North than in the South mainly due to theeffect of storms sea currents that have resulted in the eating of upto 10 meters of the coastline. The effects of the melting of thepermafrost were found to be raising temperatures in addition toleading to instances of water shortages especially in the Southernregions of Russia. Russia’s president, Mr. Putin indeedacknowledges the existence of global warming n Russia and the worldat large as indicated in the article but actually refuses to acceptwhether it is entirely caused by human activities. He howeverpledges on modest cuts of poisonous emissions.

On19thNovember, 2015, Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review of Turkey didpost an article about the Economic and Social setting in Turkey. Thearticle seems to be strongly focused on Turkey’s economic state. Inthe article, we have a strong focus on the state of capital outflowin the South-East region of Turkey that is strongly happening as aresult of the escalating nature of terror attacks in the region. Theterror attacks are perceived to have been very rampant to the extentof scaring off investors. Many entrepreneurs have closed down theirbusinesses have sold their homes at very low prices. This state ofthe economy has seen mass migration of workforce from the region inaddition to brain drains while equally resulting in excessive anddramatic job losses. This Turkish region has more than 100,000 youthsemployed in various businesses and their closure thereby spells alooming massive social distress. The state of insecurity has seen theproperty values drop by approximately 20%, a situation that seriouslydiscourages any potential investors and therefore killing theeconomic power of such regions.

Inaddition to these articles, on the 5thof November, 2015, the Rio Times Daily of Brazil did run a specialpost about culture in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil at large. The articlehad specific focus on a popular Brazilian cultural event called the2016 Carnival Event that is set to take place in February 2016 butthe preparations kick off in the December of 2015. The article triesto highlight a point about cultural diversity in Brazil as theCarnival event actually brings together people from various fieldslike paying tribute to great artists, Musicians, athletes, soccerclubs among others. The main participants at the event are thepopular Samba schools that compete in the exposure of themanifestations of various Brazilian cultures and event occurs atSambodromo. The schools thoroughly rehearse to ensure they actuallypresent masterpieces.

Globalizationis a term commonly used to refer to the nature through whichcountries and governments interact to bring about cohesivecollaborations in terms of investments and international trade andare strongly supported by the advancements in technology whilediversity on the other hand is a reference to the concept oftolerating persons from different backgrounds, (Storper 2000). Fromevidences from majority of these articles, globalization seems tohave been strongly embedded through various governmentalinteractions. One of the issues that have strongly brought forth astrong reflection on the issue of globalization is the issue ofEnvironmental Geography. Through this synthesis, we have a focus onhow environmental concern and focus has turned out to be of majorglobal concern.

Globalwarming is a condition that results in rises in global temperaturesas a result of emission of various greenhouse gases into theatmosphere, (Storper 2000). Global warming has thus brought about amajor global impact on the states of various natural set ups like onthe natural permafrost in Russia, global increments in temperaturesin addition to rises in sea levels across the world. These effectshave brought various governments and agencies across the worldtogether in a bid to ensure they contain global environmentaldegradation. In addition to that, various governments have had todecide to forge various concerted efforts to ensure they mitigate theemission of excess greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through thepromotion of various efforts aimed at ensuring the production and useof clean green energy. This process has been embraced through thedeveloped and the developing world as all countries slowly try tomove off fossil fuels in a bid to ensure a better future for ourplanet, Earth.

Culturaldiversity has also been embraced through various articles in thesenewspapers as the world joins hands to fight off vices like racism ina bid to accept people by virtue of who they are and what culturesthey come from. These cultural diversities have been depicted invarious events across the world in addition to most especially beingmore profound and accepted unreservedly in the world of sports. It isa fact that people originate from various cultures around the worldand thus there is urgent need for the world to respect people andtheir cultural practices.

Hence,the varieties of newspapers covered herein and even beyond widely tryto place emphasis on various issues of major concern especially inthe world of geography. It is crucial that vital concepts ofgeography be given major focus to ensure that the world keeps movingforward. It is therefore prudent that all people accept the impact ofglobalization and cultural diversity for a better world today and thefuture.

WorksCited

Storper,Michael. “Lived Effects of the Contemporary Economy: Globalization,Inequality and Consumer Society.” 2000. Public Culture 12 (2):375-409.

Student`s name

Should‘humans’ be considered part of nature?

LeopoldSenghor was a poet, politician and cultural theorist from Senegal whoalso, for two decades,servedas Senegal’s first president. He had an inclination to conserveland and nature. He was awarded the ‘Leopold conservation award’in ten states. According to Leopold, a state of conservation iswhereby, there is harmony between man and land. In his land ethics hestates that every part of nature is important when it comes to itswell-being. This ranges from soil and plants to human beings who arebeing referred to as reviled predators.

‘Landethics’ is basically the new relationship between human beings andnature. This brings us to our question, are ‘humans’ part ofnature? The answer is yes. Human beings make part of nature. Thisethic aims at limiting freedom of action where there is struggle forexistence in nature. It tries to limit man to a conservationeducation which calls for enlightened self-interest in relation toeducation.

Humanshave in time taken advantage of the land by considering only economicbenefits. Some trees for example, have been ignored byeconomic-minded beings. Such trees that are seen to grow slowly andcannot make as good timber crops for example, white cedar, cypress,beech, tamarack and hemlock. Beech has however been found to build upsoil fertility.

Inthis ethic, every member of the biotic community is entitled tocontinuance this is regardless of the presence or absence of anyadvantage economically. Even predators should be considered as honestmembers and no one has a right to exterminate them. Leopold urgedeveryone to put aside economic self-interest and focus on conservingnature.

Student`s Name

Southern Illinois University, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences

GEOG 104: Weather, Climate, and Society

Course: GEOG 104 Weather Climate, and Society.

Distance in Kilometer

Temperature

Kansas

Denves

Atlanta

Phoenix

Eugene

Eureka

200 400 6008001000 1200 14001600 1800 2000 2200

30

27.5

25

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

5

2.5

5

Temp Rang

6

14.8

21.5

21.4

25.9

24

Dist in Km

5

85

500

1500

2300

14

Cities

EUREKA

EUGENE

PHOENIX

DENVER

KANSAS

ATLANTA

Relationshipbetween annual temperature range and distance to ocean

How

Fromthe graph it can be deduced that areas close to sea or water bodyhave mininimal temperature range except Atlanta City, example Eurekaand Eugene. Those far from the sea have high temperatures ranges,that is Kansa, Denves and Phoenix.

Why

Eurekaand Eugene

Eurekaand Eugene temperatures are affected by sea temperatures. The seaacts as moderator, When its is hot the sea moderates the landtemperature through breezes as it take long to warm the sea thetemperatuires will not rise quickly as land tempature. In winter whenthe land is cold the sea water body is always warm thus itstemperatures influence those of areas around the sea. Thus, itmoderates the temperatures.

Kansa,Denves and Phoenix

Theabove mentioned cities have high temperatures ranges as, when its hotthe land heats the air and rapidly the temperatures rises resultingto high temperatures in summer. In winter it is cold the atmosphericair losees heat quickly resulting to low temperature in winter. Thus,the areas far flom the influence of the sea have high temperatureranges.

Atlanta

Thetopography of Atlanta on the foot of Appalachian mountains has effecton the temperatures ranges, in addition to anticyclones cold windsblowing neutralising the warm air from atlantic ocean.

Hilohas Tropical Rainforest Climate, Af

Kailuakona has Semi Arid Bs

Hilois located on the windward side of the high land, Thus, when the warmwinds blow from the sea they come carrying with them moisture fromthe sea. This warm air moisture is cooled by the land and condensedas it rises over the land, and the moisture is released inform ofrainfall on the windward side resulting to high rainfall. When thewinds cross on the other side ( Kailua kona) they have less moistureas they have released it on the wind ward side. The winds are coldand thus results to little or no precipitation.

Hilois on the windward side, Windward side is located directly to thedirection of prevailing winds from the sea. Also as indicated on thetable the precipitation of Hilo is high, just like windward side isassociated with high precipitation. Likewise as leeward side isassociated with low rainfall as indicated in the table of KaluaKona. Kalua kona is located on the leeward side as the wind s havealready passed over Hilo.

GEOG 104 1

Student`s name

Professorname

Psychologyof religion

SigmundFreud, Carl G. Jung, and William James are writers of classicaltheories of the psychology of religion. This part of essay examinestheir differences in theory and methodological approach to the studyof religion and their contribution to religion, particularly in myunderstanding.

SigmundFreud

Tobegin with Freud’s concept that religion is an illusion, Freudcommunicates to the reader of his text that religion is a fallacy,and he likens to father-child relationship. As the child grows, inthis sense a religious person, he realizes he is destined to be achild and needs to a protector against unknown. The culture does muchof cementing this reasoning in a person while he is still young. As aresult, a person creates for himself a god of whom is afraid of andseeks protection from. Freud tries to say that the main reasonbehind religion is as a result of a person feeling insecure and thathe needs protection. To discredit religion Freud uses an example of ageography question about “location of Konstanz in Bodensee whichcan be proven by seeing if you don’t believe” (Freud, 42). Heintends to say if religion is true, why then have the believers ofreligion have not been able to provide evidence.

Headds that the responses given by religious people are baseless as tothe reason for their belief in religion. Freud intends to say, thefact that something was done by ancestors, does not warrant anyone tosay that it’s right or true. Some of the traditions that weretreasured by ancestors of man have been disregarded as beingworthless and without value, according to Freud it would not be asurprise if religion was one ( Freud,45). Secondly, the fact thatreligion claims that they possess proofs that also need to be proventhemselves is also illogical in Freud`s eyes. Thirdly, the fact thatit is forbidden in religion to raise questions about the authenticityof religion made Freud doubt even more the truth behind religion.(Freud, 43). Science can be proven, as it is not an illusion and itsresults can be replicated anywhere, but the existence of God is afallacy. “Their God is nothing but an insurbantiantial shadow andno longer the mighty personality of religious doctrine” (Freud,54).The reason people hold onto religion is because it provides hope andprotection that according to Freud is based on illusion wishfulfillment is the driving force toward religion.

CarlJung

Hedifferentiates the West and East thinking regarding philosophy andpsychology. He claims that critical philosophy the mother ofpsychology is foreign in the East and medieval Europe. He shows howthe word mind in the East has a connation of something metaphysicswhile the Western conception has lost this connotation. The word mindmeans or signifies psychic function in The East, and it is upon thisthat existence is based (Jung, xxxv). He showed how the Westernperceived a personal mind as having no connection with hypotheticaluniversal mind. Western have succeeded in isolating the mind in itssphere and in severing it from pre-model oneness with the universe.Psychology treats all metaphysical claims and assertion as a mentalphenomenon and regards them as a statement. Carl Jung states that itis possible that our mind is nothing but a perceptible manifestationof universal mind.

Psychologyholds that mind cannot establish anything beyond itself (Jung, xxx).In East, the mind is a cosmic factor that the very essence ofexistence while in the West it has not yet fully begun to becomprehended. This is to mean that it is important to the conditionof cognition and hence the cognitive existence of the world. In East,there is no conflict between religion and science as there is noscience based upon passion for facts and no religion upon mere faith.What Jung means, there is religious cognition and cognitive religion.In western, the grace of God is everything, man depend solely on God,but in the eastern man is God himself, and he redeems himself (Jung,xxxiv). Jung shows how East bases itself upon psychic reality uponwhich it exists and is the sole source of its higher development forit believes in self-liberation. Also, western man is Christian, nomatter what denomination in Christianity he belongs. Jung depictswestern man as fearful and fully dependent on God, was he to replacethat power God represents with money them the western man would bevery greedy, glutton, and all other sorts of things.

WilliamJames

James’ideology represents an interesting fusion of two fundamentaltraditions in the history of psychology of religion he incorporatesboth descriptive and explanatory elements while more descriptivepsychologists aim to be sympathetic of individuals and see the truthas something subjective that is to be seen from within. Explanatoryapproach understands religion materialistically. Its claim maintainsthat every phenomenon is psychologically explainable. His willingnessto place differently the aspects or religion into grader categoriesof pathology is explanatory, but his claim that this does not reducetheir value to determine their origin is sympathetic. What matters toJames, is understanding the truth in how religion can help humanitydetermine its moral potential. He makes a distinction between theorigins of the phenomena in question and the value of that phenomenonand requires that you determine each truth in different independentways.

Thepurpose of James is to defend the religious point of view. He caresto determine what values religions hold to humanity. James dedicateshis first lecture to convince the reader that origins are notpossible to an indicator of value and materialism and cannotdiscredit religion by claiming that its source is in psychologicallyexplainable roots. He uses the religious genius to do hisinvestigation. Since all states of mind and scientific theories areorganically conditioned, it is not possible to discount a religiousidea on its origin (James, 15). The assumption of medical materialismthat states of mind are inherently superior to other (James, 16) ishow they can value scientific ideas and spurn religious ones. Purelymedical and explanatory test cannot resolve this disagreement betweenspiritual and existential judgments. The theory of pathologicalcausation of genius is used to show how genius is allied to moralinsanity and the greater the genius the greater the morbidity of andunsoundness of his mind. The spiritual is judged by immediateluminousness, philosophical reasonableness, and moral helpfulness.Empiricist must evaluate fruits, not the roots. James attempts toconvince his readers that the religious should be judged by theirresults giving practical value to the moral life of the individual.

Philosopher’sContribution to Religion

Ithink Freud contributed immensely to the rise of Atheism. The theoryof atheist is based upon the ideology that God does not exist, andreligion is an illusion. I believe too that Freud gave reason topeople to look religion from the analytical point of view and gavescience to people as new God. Charles Darwin believed that humanbeing evolved and were not created, in mind he is the same as Freud.Thus Freud gave anti-religionist a cause in their lives.

CarlJung has enabled fellow philosophers, even readers, to realize andunderstand the extroversion and introversion of western and easternreligions and their bases on their faith or actions towards religion.He has shown why those who believe in Buddhism can access the powerof unconscious mind hence attaining self-enlightenment. He brings outthe psychology of western and eastern mind to live.

Jamesasserts that religion is true, giving the religious hope that theycling not to an illusion. He makes it legitimate to study religionthrough experimental dimension. He encourages scholars opposed toreligion to judge it by its moral value and fruits and not its roots.He encouraged the scholars to study religion without fear of beingdiscarded for studying the extreme.

Phenomenologyof Religion by Mircea Eliade

Heconcentrates his studies on the symbolism of religion he states thatman is a homo symbilus. Eliade states that historian of religiondeals with an understanding of man and his situation in the world(Eliade, 88). Historians according to Eliade are preoccupied withthose religious symbols that are bound up with the religiousexperience. Eliade states that historian should not ignore that ishistorically concrete. Historians are supposed to familiarizethemselves with the greatest possible number of religious in theirelementary stages. He uses archaic and primitive religion to statethis case. It is the responsibility of the historian of religion toformulate religious behavior of man as far as there also otherdisciplines trying to do the same. He has to master to integrate theresults of another researcher in this field and make hisinterpretation. One is a historian of religion, not because hemasters all religious philosophies, but he integrates religious datainto a general perspective (Eliade, 91). One only understands symbolsafter having studied types and variety of them.

Eliadeuses the study of the cosmic tree to elaborate the understanding ofsymbols. Only after knowing what initial meaning the tree has inMesopotamia will one be able to grasp the different meaning given tothe symbol. Religious facts that human has had a symbolic meaning thereason the man was referred as homo symbolic. (Eliade, 95). It notright to say that religious subject implies the study of religioussymbolism. The term symbol is reserved for religious facts whosesymbolism is manifest and explicit. (Eliade, 95). The symbols inreligion are what human give meaning to in their religion. Eliadepoints that primitive symbols are always religious because they pointto something real or structure of the world. Symbols aim at realityor a situation in which human existence is to engage. (Eliade, 102).Eliade adds that this symbol brings a meaning into human existence.To show the connection between symbols and human existence he usesthe seven planets to relate them to a cosmic tree, horse to thesymbol of death and spade with phallus (104). He adds that thesymbolism would not have existed if man never interacted withagriculture or horse and the discovery of the seven planets. Eliadebase hi study of religion through the approach of symbols andreligious historical facts.

SmithCantwell adds that though people study religion externalities theyshould not be used to define religion for the study of religion isthe study of man, more concentration should be on the study ofreligious man to understand religion as religion is only valid if abeliever can agree with it. But for symbolism or externalities it iseven possible for a scholar to come up with a different meaning thanthat of the believer. He adds that historians should only study thosesymbols that portray the faith of believer only. He adds thatreligions are new every morning. He wishes historian to study onlythose symbols that that man is sympathetic to and that he givesmeaning. He adds that, to study religion effectively we have now tostudy religion in a personalized way and has to be inclusive studyand not an objective study from a distance.

Worldof Text Interpretation Paul Ricoeur

Ricoeuranalyzes interpretation from the perspective of Dilthey as an art ofunderstanding applied to testimonies of which writing is adistinctive characteristic. He adds Dilthey definition ofUnderstanding “is the process that we come to know something ofmental life through perceptible signs that manifest it”(Ricoeur,150). My understanding of this is that how someone comes to know theintention of text that the writer had, is understanding.Interpretation provides the degree of objection in virtue of fixationand preservation upon which writing confers upon signs. Ricouermakes a statement of Dilthey that interpretation is subordinate ofunderstanding though, he deviates from Dilthey reasoning.Hermeneutics aims to understand the author better than he understandshimself (Ricoeur, 151). “For the logic of interpretation thefunction of hermeneutics is to establish theoretically against theintrusion of romantic whim and skeptical subjectivism into the domainof history, the universal validity of interpretation.”( Ricoeur,151) . Understanding thus seeks to concur with the inner life, themental perspective, to reproduce the process that produced the work.Thus, Ricoeur reinstates in psychological terms that interpretationpursues and always aims at the reproduction of lived experiences. Butin the end of this discussion II explanation and understanding hebrings out two questions about interpretation “whether it ispossible to leave or abandon the reference of interpretation tounderstanding and cease to make the interpretation of written text aparticular case of understanding the external signs of `an innermental life ?”(Ricoeur, 151). He adds another question too, of “ifinterpretation does not seek the intelligibility in understandingothers does is a relation with an explanation now need to berevisited?” (Ricoeur, 151).

Intext discourse, interpretation is the concrete outcome ofconjunctions and renewal. Ricoeur uses Schleimer, Bultman and Diltheyto show how interpretation retains the feature of appropriation. Thatis, the interpretation of a text culminates in theself-interpretation of a subject who henceforth understands himself.Ricoeur shows how in interpretation reading becomes (like) speech. Hegoes ahead and brings an articulation between explanation andinterpretation by rendering a structural analysis and hermeneuticscomplimentary. He regards structural analysis as necessary stagebetween critical and naïve interpretation. He sees the possibilityto situate explanation and interpretation along a uniquehermeneutical arc and to integrate the opposed attitudes ofexplanation and understanding within an overall a concept of readingas are recovery of meaning. To explain is to bring out the structurethat is an internal relation of dependence that constitutes thestatic of the text, to interpret is to follow the path of thoughtopened up by the text to place oneself on the route toward the orientof the text (Ricoeur 161).

Hesees the subjective process of interpretation as an act onthe text while for an objective process of interpretation as the actoftext(Ricoeur 161). To show the relationship between interpretation andtradition he uses the story of creation where the story is bothexpressed as a narrative of action and speech. He relates thenarrative of action to tradition and the narrative speech tointerpretation. This relationship is internal to the text, for theexegete to interpret is to place himself in the meaning indicated bythe relation of interpretation that the text itself supports. Readingis the concept in which the destiny of text is fulfilled, it’s thevery act of reading that the explanation and interpretation areopposed and reconciled. Ricoeur finally settles for Aristotleunderstanding of Interpretation “ is not what one does with thesecond language concerning the first, rather it’s what the firstlanguage already does by mediating upon signs, our relation tothings.” ( Ricoeur, 162)

Finally,Recouer acknowledges that open series of interpret-ant that isgrafted onto relation of a sign to an object brings to light atriangle relation of the object, sign and interpret-ant.

Relevanceof World of Text in Religious Studies

Ricouerenables reader to understand the meaning of religious text from boththe perspective of the author, and that the text bears. Taking thereligious text as it is, and interpreting it both in subjective andobjective to gain meaning is what scholars should do. In religiousstudies, text understanding should be used to recreate the originalmental position of the writer and reconcile him with the reader.Ibelieve Ricoeur in the world of text intended that we should alwaysanalyze all the perspectives of text. He uses the Biblical story ofcreation to show two perspectives of narrative of action and speech.He also shows how text relates to each other, he uses the Oediphusmyth to show how text connect to each other bringing out the speechnarrative of the myth. Thus the texts in their simple units expoundthe meaning in structure of religious studies. Hermeneutics aims tounderstand the reader better than he understands himself. Thus, inunderstanding religious studies texts scholars should internalize theauthor’s position and recreate the events that occurred when thewriter wrote text, thus understanding the writer better.AlsoRicoeur points the understanding is triangle objective ofinterpreting text from object itself to sign attributed to the objectand the interpret-ant.

Citedworks

EliadeMircea, “Methodological Remarks on The Study of ReligiousSymbolism” Paul

Ricoeurhermeneutics and the Human Sciences.Ed Joseph Campbell Penguins Books

1976,480-502

FreudSigmund “The future of Illusion”

JamesWilliam. “Religion and Neurology,” Lecture on Varieties ofReligion.

JungCarl G. “Differences Between Eastern and Western Thinking”Portablejung,ed Joseph

CampellPenguin Books 1976, 480-502

RicoeurPaul. “What is a Text Explanation and Understanding,” PaulRicoeur Hermeneutics

andHuman Science.Ed John B Thompson New York: Cambridge University

press1981,145-64

SmithWilfred Cantwell. “Comparative Religion: Wither and Why?” Thehistory of Religious

Essayin Methodology.Ed Mircea Eliade and Joseph Kitagawa Chicago.

Universityof Chicago Press 1959,131-58

Student`s name

Professorname

Psychologyof religion

SigmundFreud, Carl G. Jung, and William James are writers of classicaltheories of the psychology of religion. This part of essay examinestheir differences in theory and methodological approach to the studyof religion and their contribution to religion, particularly in myunderstanding.

SigmundFreud

Tobegin with Freud’s concept that religion is an illusion, Freudcommunicates to the reader of his text that religion is a fallacy,and he likens to father-child relationship. As the child grows, inthis sense a religious person, he realizes he is destined to be achild and needs to a protector against unknown. The culture does muchof cementing this reasoning in a person while he is still young. As aresult, a person creates for himself a god of whom is afraid of andseeks protection from. Freud tries to say that the main reasonbehind religion is as a result of a person feeling insecure and thathe needs protection. To discredit religion Freud uses an example of ageography question about “location of Konstanz in Bodensee whichcan be proven by seeing if you don’t believe” (Freud, 42). Heintends to say if religion is true, why then have the believers ofreligion have not been able to provide evidence.

Headds that the responses given by religious people are baseless as tothe reason for their belief in religion. Freud intends to say, thefact that something was done by ancestors, does not warrant anyone tosay that it’s right or true. Some of the traditions that weretreasured by ancestors of man have been disregarded as beingworthless and without value, according to Freud it would not be asurprise if religion was one ( Freud,45). Secondly, the fact thatreligion claims that they possess proofs that also need to be proventhemselves is also illogical in Freud`s eyes. Thirdly, the fact thatit is forbidden in religion to raise questions about the authenticityof religion made Freud doubt even more the truth behind religion.(Freud, 43). Science can be proven, as it is not an illusion and itsresults can be replicated anywhere, but the existence of God is afallacy. “Their God is nothing but an insurbantiantial shadow andno longer the mighty personality of religious doctrine” (Freud,54).The reason people hold onto religion is because it provides hope andprotection that according to Freud is based on illusion wishfulfillment is the driving force toward religion.

CarlJung

Hedifferentiates the West and East thinking regarding philosophy andpsychology. He claims that critical philosophy the mother ofpsychology is foreign in the East and medieval Europe. He shows howthe word mind in the East has a connation of something metaphysicswhile the Western conception has lost this connotation. The word mindmeans or signifies psychic function in The East, and it is upon thisthat existence is based (Jung, xxxv). He showed how the Westernperceived a personal mind as having no connection with hypotheticaluniversal mind. Western have succeeded in isolating the mind in itssphere and in severing it from pre-model oneness with the universe.Psychology treats all metaphysical claims and assertion as a mentalphenomenon and regards them as a statement. Carl Jung states that itis possible that our mind is nothing but a perceptible manifestationof universal mind.

Psychologyholds that mind cannot establish anything beyond itself (Jung, xxx).In East, the mind is a cosmic factor that the very essence ofexistence while in the West it has not yet fully begun to becomprehended. This is to mean that it is important to the conditionof cognition and hence the cognitive existence of the world. In East,there is no conflict between religion and science as there is noscience based upon passion for facts and no religion upon mere faith.What Jung means, there is religious cognition and cognitive religion.In western, the grace of God is everything, man depend solely on God,but in the eastern man is God himself, and he redeems himself (Jung,xxxiv). Jung shows how East bases itself upon psychic reality uponwhich it exists and is the sole source of its higher development forit believes in self-liberation. Also, western man is Christian, nomatter what denomination in Christianity he belongs. Jung depictswestern man as fearful and fully dependent on God, was he to replacethat power God represents with money them the western man would bevery greedy, glutton, and all other sorts of things.

WilliamJames

James’ideology represents an interesting fusion of two fundamentaltraditions in the history of psychology of religion he incorporatesboth descriptive and explanatory elements while more descriptivepsychologists aim to be sympathetic of individuals and see the truthas something subjective that is to be seen from within. Explanatoryapproach understands religion materialistically. Its claim maintainsthat every phenomenon is psychologically explainable. His willingnessto place differently the aspects or religion into grader categoriesof pathology is explanatory, but his claim that this does not reducetheir value to determine their origin is sympathetic. What matters toJames, is understanding the truth in how religion can help humanitydetermine its moral potential. He makes a distinction between theorigins of the phenomena in question and the value of that phenomenonand requires that you determine each truth in different independentways.

Thepurpose of James is to defend the religious point of view. He caresto determine what values religions hold to humanity. James dedicateshis first lecture to convince the reader that origins are notpossible to an indicator of value and materialism and cannotdiscredit religion by claiming that its source is in psychologicallyexplainable roots. He uses the religious genius to do hisinvestigation. Since all states of mind and scientific theories areorganically conditioned, it is not possible to discount a religiousidea on its origin (James, 15). The assumption of medical materialismthat states of mind are inherently superior to other (James, 16) ishow they can value scientific ideas and spurn religious ones. Purelymedical and explanatory test cannot resolve this disagreement betweenspiritual and existential judgments. The theory of pathologicalcausation of genius is used to show how genius is allied to moralinsanity and the greater the genius the greater the morbidity of andunsoundness of his mind. The spiritual is judged by immediateluminousness, philosophical reasonableness, and moral helpfulness.Empiricist must evaluate fruits, not the roots. James attempts toconvince his readers that the religious should be judged by theirresults giving practical value to the moral life of the individual.

Philosopher’sContribution to Religion

Ithink Freud contributed immensely to the rise of Atheism. The theoryof atheist is based upon the ideology that God does not exist, andreligion is an illusion. I believe too that Freud gave reason topeople to look religion from the analytical point of view and gavescience to people as new God. Charles Darwin believed that humanbeing evolved and were not created, in mind he is the same as Freud.Thus Freud gave anti-religionist a cause in their lives.

CarlJung has enabled fellow philosophers, even readers, to realize andunderstand the extroversion and introversion of western and easternreligions and their bases on their faith or actions towards religion.He has shown why those who believe in Buddhism can access the powerof unconscious mind hence attaining self-enlightenment. He brings outthe psychology of western and eastern mind to live.

Jamesasserts that religion is true, giving the religious hope that theycling not to an illusion. He makes it legitimate to study religionthrough experimental dimension. He encourages scholars opposed toreligion to judge it by its moral value and fruits and not its roots.He encouraged the scholars to study religion without fear of beingdiscarded for studying the extreme.

Phenomenologyof Religion by Mircea Eliade

Heconcentrates his studies on the symbolism of religion he states thatman is a homo symbilus. Eliade states that historian of religiondeals with an understanding of man and his situation in the world(Eliade, 88). Historians according to Eliade are preoccupied withthose religious symbols that are bound up with the religiousexperience. Eliade states that historian should not ignore that ishistorically concrete. Historians are supposed to familiarizethemselves with the greatest possible number of religious in theirelementary stages. He uses archaic and primitive religion to statethis case. It is the responsibility of the historian of religion toformulate religious behavior of man as far as there also otherdisciplines trying to do the same. He has to master to integrate theresults of another researcher in this field and make hisinterpretation. One is a historian of religion, not because hemasters all religious philosophies, but he integrates religious datainto a general perspective (Eliade, 91). One only understands symbolsafter having studied types and variety of them.

Eliadeuses the study of the cosmic tree to elaborate the understanding ofsymbols. Only after knowing what initial meaning the tree has inMesopotamia will one be able to grasp the different meaning given tothe symbol. Religious facts that human has had a symbolic meaning thereason the man was referred as homo symbolic. (Eliade, 95). It notright to say that religious subject implies the study of religioussymbolism. The term symbol is reserved for religious facts whosesymbolism is manifest and explicit. (Eliade, 95). The symbols inreligion are what human give meaning to in their religion. Eliadepoints that primitive symbols are always religious because they pointto something real or structure of the world. Symbols aim at realityor a situation in which human existence is to engage. (Eliade, 102).Eliade adds that this symbol brings a meaning into human existence.To show the connection between symbols and human existence he usesthe seven planets to relate them to a cosmic tree, horse to thesymbol of death and spade with phallus (104). He adds that thesymbolism would not have existed if man never interacted withagriculture or horse and the discovery of the seven planets. Eliadebase hi study of religion through the approach of symbols andreligious historical facts.

SmithCantwell adds that though people study religion externalities theyshould not be used to define religion for the study of religion isthe study of man, more concentration should be on the study ofreligious man to understand religion as religion is only valid if abeliever can agree with it. But for symbolism or externalities it iseven possible for a scholar to come up with a different meaning thanthat of the believer. He adds that historians should only study thosesymbols that portray the faith of believer only. He adds thatreligions are new every morning. He wishes historian to study onlythose symbols that that man is sympathetic to and that he givesmeaning. He adds that, to study religion effectively we have now tostudy religion in a personalized way and has to be inclusive studyand not an objective study from a distance.

Worldof Text Interpretation Paul Ricoeur

Ricoeuranalyzes interpretation from the perspective of Dilthey as an art ofunderstanding applied to testimonies of which writing is adistinctive characteristic. He adds Dilthey definition ofUnderstanding “is the process that we come to know something ofmental life through perceptible signs that manifest it”(Ricoeur,150). My understanding of this is that how someone comes to know theintention of text that the writer had, is understanding.Interpretation provides the degree of objection in virtue of fixationand preservation upon which writing confers upon signs. Ricouermakes a statement of Dilthey that interpretation is subordinate ofunderstanding though, he deviates from Dilthey reasoning.Hermeneutics aims to understand the author better than he understandshimself (Ricoeur, 151). “For the logic of interpretation thefunction of hermeneutics is to establish theoretically against theintrusion of romantic whim and skeptical subjectivism into the domainof history, the universal validity of interpretation.”( Ricoeur,151) . Understanding thus seeks to concur with the inner life, themental perspective, to reproduce the process that produced the work.Thus, Ricoeur reinstates in psychological terms that interpretationpursues and always aims at the reproduction of lived experiences. Butin the end of this discussion II explanation and understanding hebrings out two questions about interpretation “whether it ispossible to leave or abandon the reference of interpretation tounderstanding and cease to make the interpretation of written text aparticular case of understanding the external signs of `an innermental life ?”(Ricoeur, 151). He adds another question too, of “ifinterpretation does not seek the intelligibility in understandingothers does is a relation with an explanation now need to berevisited?” (Ricoeur, 151).

Intext discourse, interpretation is the concrete outcome ofconjunctions and renewal. Ricoeur uses Schleimer, Bultman and Diltheyto show how interpretation retains the feature of appropriation. Thatis, the interpretation of a text culminates in theself-interpretation of a subject who henceforth understands himself.Ricoeur shows how in interpretation reading becomes (like) speech. Hegoes ahead and brings an articulation between explanation andinterpretation by rendering a structural analysis and hermeneuticscomplimentary. He regards structural analysis as necessary stagebetween critical and naïve interpretation. He sees the possibilityto situate explanation and interpretation along a uniquehermeneutical arc and to integrate the opposed attitudes ofexplanation and understanding within an overall a concept of readingas are recovery of meaning. To explain is to bring out the structurethat is an internal relation of dependence that constitutes thestatic of the text, to interpret is to follow the path of thoughtopened up by the text to place oneself on the route toward the orientof the text (Ricoeur 161).

Hesees the subjective process of interpretation as an act onthe text while for an objective process of interpretation as the actoftext(Ricoeur 161). To show the relationship between interpretation andtradition he uses the story of creation where the story is bothexpressed as a narrative of action and speech. He relates thenarrative of action to tradition and the narrative speech tointerpretation. This relationship is internal to the text, for theexegete to interpret is to place himself in the meaning indicated bythe relation of interpretation that the text itself supports. Readingis the concept in which the destiny of text is fulfilled, it’s thevery act of reading that the explanation and interpretation areopposed and reconciled. Ricoeur finally settles for Aristotleunderstanding of Interpretation “ is not what one does with thesecond language concerning the first, rather it’s what the firstlanguage already does by mediating upon signs, our relation tothings.” ( Ricoeur, 162)

Finally,Recouer acknowledges that open series of interpret-ant that isgrafted onto relation of a sign to an object brings to light atriangle relation of the object, sign and interpret-ant.

Relevanceof World of Text in Religious Studies

Ricouerenables reader to understand the meaning of religious text from boththe perspective of the author, and that the text bears. Taking thereligious text as it is, and interpreting it both in subjective andobjective to gain meaning is what scholars should do. In religiousstudies, text understanding should be used to recreate the originalmental position of the writer and reconcile him with the reader.Ibelieve Ricoeur in the world of text intended that we should alwaysanalyze all the perspectives of text. He uses the Biblical story ofcreation to show two perspectives of narrative of action and speech.He also shows how text relates to each other, he uses the Oediphusmyth to show how text connect to each other bringing out the speechnarrative of the myth. Thus the texts in their simple units expoundthe meaning in structure of religious studies. Hermeneutics aims tounderstand the reader better than he understands himself. Thus, inunderstanding religious studies texts scholars should internalize theauthor’s position and recreate the events that occurred when thewriter wrote text, thus understanding the writer better.AlsoRicoeur points the understanding is triangle objective ofinterpreting text from object itself to sign attributed to the objectand the interpret-ant.

Citedworks

EliadeMircea, “Methodological Remarks on The Study of ReligiousSymbolism” Paul

Ricoeurhermeneutics and the Human Sciences.Ed Joseph Campbell Penguins Books

1976,480-502

FreudSigmund “The future of Illusion”

JamesWilliam. “Religion and Neurology,” Lecture on Varieties ofReligion.

JungCarl G. “Differences Between Eastern and Western Thinking”Portablejung,ed Joseph

CampellPenguin Books 1976, 480-502

RicoeurPaul. “What is a Text Explanation and Understanding,” PaulRicoeur Hermeneutics

andHuman Science.Ed John B Thompson New York: Cambridge University

press1981,145-64

SmithWilfred Cantwell. “Comparative Religion: Wither and Why?” Thehistory of Religious

Essayin Methodology.Ed Mircea Eliade and Joseph Kitagawa Chicago.

Universityof Chicago Press 1959,131-58

Student`s Name

PART1 (a) Internal Gas Flows

Airflow bench is a tool that measures the air flow capabilities ofvarious applications. For quite long, it has been an invaluable toolto those interested in the improvement of the performance of internalcombustion engines. With the flow-bench equipment, it is possible totest inlet manifolds, valve profiles, exhaust systems, air cleaners,etc. The goal of flow bench testing is to obtain the actual airflowfigures by flowing air under controlled conditions (Bettes, 2014).With this, it is possible to study airflow characteristics such asvelocity, turbulence, tumble, swirl, and distribution

FundamentalTechnique

Aflow bench uses a source of airflow a means of measuring the actualairflow, a way of controlling the test pressure of applied air and asurface for mounting the device under test. When the test piece is ont the surface, some pressure, usually called test pressure is appliedand the resulting airflow measured. Air flow measurement is bydetermining the pressure drops across an orifice with a knowncharacteristic. When the air flow is greater, there will be moresignificant pressure drop. Water column manometer measures the flowrate and the test pressure (Bettes, 2014). The process does notdepend on atmospheric parameters, that is, air temperature andpressure. All variations are applied to the test piece and themeasuring system (Ratiometric measuring). For a full range ofaccurate testing, several orifices are used.

Descriptionof Apparatus

Airbox, Vertical Manometer, Inclined Manometer, Orificeholes and Mounting bench

AdaptingCylinder heads for testing

Thecylinder heads adapt to the flow test bench using cylinder adaptors.These adaptors are the 4-inch long tubes that have the same bore asthe engine. A Flange Is welded on each of its ends. The lower flangeis fixed on the flow tester while the upper one is mounted on theengine cylinder head. These flanges have gaskets to make the unionair tight. It is sometimes convenient to make the adaptor flange 20%wider than the test cylinder. It ensures that the there is supportfor the head when it is offset to test the end cylinders.

Toopen the valves to desired test positions, a threaded mount isattached to a rocker arm stud. It is such that the end of the bolt isin contact with the end of the valve stem. On the cylinder headintake side, a radiused entrance guide is installed so that it leadsthe air into to the head. This guide has a thickness equivalent toone port width. Alternatively, the intake manifold may be used(Ganesan, 2012)

Performingthe test

Inthe Flow bench, air flows via the engine cylinder head to flow benchset up. This air passes in an air pump exiting via the vents on theflow bench sides. This air flow measurement is in Cubic foot perminute (CFM).The pressure is the difference that occurs over an adjustable airflow orifice mounted on the flow bench. Several ranges are takenusing a flow meter to achieve high accuracy over. In the bench, it ispossible to vary full-scale flow measurement from 25 CFM to 1000 CFM.

Presentationof Results

Thechart flow is calculated by multiplying the flow meter reading by thecorrected flow range and then subtracting the leakage flow rate. Itgives the test flow rate. This test flow rate can be compared toother tests without further calculations. To rectify the temperaturedifference caused by the air passing through the blower motor, thetest flow is multiplied by the difference temperature factor. Thetemperature- difference is the difference between the upper and lowerthermometer readings. The valve efficiency is obtained by calculatingthe flow in tier square inch of valve area and then comparing that tothe best yet achieved.

Calculationof Air flow: V (m/s) = L * N/30000 * (D /d)2

RPM

Gas Flow (m/s)

1500

0.03

m/s

2500

0.05

m/s

3500

0.07

m/s

4500

0.09

m/s

LearningExperience

  • It is advisable always to maintain the same orifice range at the same test point.

  • The leakage CFM remains to a minimum by making a good seal on all surfaces, including the valves in the head.

  • If light valve springs are used, it is ensured that they are not sucked open by the vacuum of the intake tests.

  • The meters are always leveled and zeroed before each test.

Commenton Differing Valve Seat Angles

Multipleangles to fully radiused seats are essential for good air flow. Atypical competition intake valve seat will consist of a 30° top cut100&quot wide, a 450seat, 40&quot wide, and a 70° inside cut 180&quot wide. An exhaustregulator will work well with a 15° top cut 60&quot wide, followedby a 45° seat 60&quot wide, and a 75° inside cut 100&quot wide.The Flow-bench test will in most cases reveal a superior shape forany specified head (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz, 2011).

PART1 (b) Literature Review

TheGeometry of Engine intake port determines swirl ratio,characteristics of combustion and volumetric efficiency. Fordifferent configuration of the port, Swirl generation has beeninvestigated to obtain the optimal swirl ratio that is useful forvarious engine applications and conditions of operation this leadsto optimal combustion (Ganesan, 2012).

Inthe development of internal combustion engine, optimization of thegas inflow through intake ports is an important process because themovement of charge produced by the intake flow considerably affectsthe quality of air-fuel mixture and combustion. The flow fieldpatterns of the combustion chamber at the time of fuel injection andensuing interactions with fuel sprays and combustion phenomena formsdominant parameters of the engine performance and levels of exhaustemissions in the engine.

Otherimportant considerations in optimal engine design are the exactmatching of the engine, parameters of fuel injection, the shape ofthe bowl, compression ratio, characteristics of scavenging andrecirculation of exhaust gas. The flow field of the cylinder mostlydepends on the swirl and motion of tumble during the intake stroke.Because it is not easier to determine the swirling flow within theengine while in operation, constant stream tests are mainly used toevaluate the swirl together with the discharge coefficient (Ferguson&amp Kirkpatrick, 2015). It is an important process while designingof a new engine. It results in making a geometrical shape of anintake valve that will give optimal swirl ratio.

Inthe engine cylinder, high turbulence occurs during the intake stroke.The turbulence then falls as the flow rate declines towards theengine’s bottom dead center (BDC). This turbulence again increasesduring the compression stroke. At the same time, swirl, squish andtumble increase towards the engine’s top dead center (TDC). Thisincreased turbulence at the TDC during starting is highly significantfor the process of combustion in the engine. It is because it breaksand spreads the burning flame front very fast compared to a laminarflame. The air-fuel mixture is completely burned within a fraction ofthe time, avoiding self- igniting and knocking (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz,2011). To increase the turbulence, engine cylinder expands when thecombustion process is taking place.

Theair intake system’s primary function is to supply clean air to theengine with the correct amount that is required for burning in themanifold chamber. The efficiency of air flow in the air intake systemdirectly impacts the power delivered by the engine. The primary taskof an intake port is to supply air to the cylinders properly. Thisidentical supply of air to cylinders is very critical for the optimaloperation of the engine. Air distribution that is uneven leads tonon-uniform volumetric efficiency in cylinders, loss in power andincreased fuel usage. When the Interior Combustion engine is inoperation, pressure waves occur because of pressure drop in cylindersin intake strokes.

Fromthe literature reviewed, it is noted that the designing of the inletmanifold arrangement is very significant in an internal combustionengine (IC). Horsepower of an IC engine varies proportionally to thequantity of air drawn into the cylinder and retained until ignitiontakes place (Agrawal, 2006). Through the reduction of the resistanceof the air flowing through the intakes and exhaust tract, the fillingof the cylinder improves and engine power is increased directly.

Thepower that is gained by improving the airflow depends on thevolumetric efficiency of the engine (how the cylinder is full). Foran engine that has 60% volumetric efficiency, it can be increasedmore than an engine that has 90% volumetric efficiency. The totalflow of air through an internal combustion engine determines itsmaximum horsepower. When it is at peak power, the engine uses 1.67cubic feet of air (CFM) per minute for each horsepower it develops.For instance, a 100 HP engine uses 167 CFM. It holds true for anyfour-cycle internal combustion engine. Alcohol burning engines uses1.47 CFM per Horsepower developed (Ferguson &amp Kirkpatrick, 2015).

Tooptimize the engine power output, the capacity of airflow of theengine has to be improved, or the air-fuel charge must burn to themaximum. Most engine manufacturers concentrate primarily onincreasing the airflow. To ensure that more air passes through anengine, the carburetor’s flow resistance, intake manifold, andcylinder head are reduced. This requirement has led to hundreds ofafter-market carburetors, intake manifolds, and cylinder heads thatare ported out, and all are designed to increase airflow through theengine (Shi, Ge &amp Reitz, 2011)

of Key Findings

Toachieve maximum airflow, the ideal air intake system requires asingle carburetor for every cylinder with a slide-plate throttle anda venturi that is equivalent to 85 times the diameter of the intakevalve. Below this venture, the bore of the carburetor should open upgradually to the size of intake valve at the entrance to intakemanifold and gradually tapers down up to 85 times the diameter of theintake valve at a level about 1/2&quot below the valve seat (Gupta,2013).

Practically,this ideal has never been achieved, but it offers a guide for what anactive port should look. When creating a port on a cylinder head formaximum air-flow, the following points should be considered.

  • Losses in flow arise from changes in direction and decreases in velocity (port bends and expansions).

  • The Port area should range between 65% to 100% of the valve area

  • Materials are primarily removed from the outside of port bends and not in the inside. By doing this, the flow improves t by increasing the radius of the bend.

  • Port length and surface finish do not affect the flow.

  • The valve seat shape substantially affects the flow.

Section2: Chassis Analytical design

FORCE COMPONENT

&nbsp

FORMULAR

RESULT

UNITS

Drag

=

½ ρV2A CD

272.10

N

Lift

=

½ ρV2A CL

526.64

N

Side force

=

½ ρV2A CLCS

10.53

N

Pitching moment

=

½ ρV2A CPMLWB

81.28

Nm

Rolling moment

=

½ ρV2A CRMLWB

40.64

Nm

Yawing moment

=

½ ρV2A CYMLWB

365.75

Nm

Drag power loss

=

Drag x Velocity

9.07

KNM/s (KW)

Downforce

=

Drag x Height of CoG

77.55

Nm @33.33m/s

Weightis a product of the mass and gravity (W = mg). Because the weight isbeing pulled towards the core of the earth by the force of gravity,it is regarded as force and as a result, measured in Newton (N)

TotalWeight, WT= 1,519.4 * 9.81 =14,905.31 N

FrontWeight, WF= 14,905.31 * 40/100 = 5,962.13 N

RearWeight WR= 14,905.31 * 60/100 = 8943.19 N

Takingmoments about the front:

WF* 0 +WT* a – WR* LWB = 0

Tobe in equilibrium, the sum of all moments is equal to zero.

Therefore,WT* a = WR* LWB

Fromwhich a= WR* LWB/WT =1.389 m

andb= LWB– a =0.932m

FrontForces (40%) are given by:

Side force

=

10.53*40/100

=4.21Nm

Pitching moment

=

81.28*40/100

=32.51Nm

Rolling moment

=

40.64*40/100

=16.26Nm

Yawing moment

=

365.75*40/100

=146.30Nm

*Note:Per axle gives data, divided by 2 per wheel while assuming 50/50centerline position.

Rearforces (60%) are given by

Side force

=

10.53*60/100

=6.32 Nm

Pitching moment

=

81.28*60/100

=48.77 Nm

Rolling moment

=

40.64*60/100

=24.38 Nm

Yawing moment

=

365.75*60/100

=219.45Nm

*Note:Per axle provides data, divided by 2 per wheel while assuming 50/50centerline position.

Implicationsfor Chassis Design

Drag

Drag,in vehicle aerodynamics, is made up primarily of two forces. Frontalpressureresultsfrom the air when it flows on the front of the vehicle.Rearvacuumoccurs as a consequence of an apparent hole created in the air as thevehicle passes through it. The hole occurs because the air moleculesdo not close the hole as quickly as the vehicle makes it and causes asucking effect on the opposite direction. In Chassis design knowledgeof drag force helps in keeping flow attachment because the forceresulting from the vacuum is more than that created by frontalpressure. Consequently, the whole length of the chassis has to beoptimized to ensure there are minimum turbulence and maximum speed.

Pitching,Yaw and Roll Moments

TheRolling, pitching and yawing moments are rotations about theindividual axes, starting from a steady and a defined equilibriumstate. Conventionally, the rolling moment acts about the longitudinalaxis the yaw moment acts about the vertical body axis while thePitch moment acts around an axis that is perpendicular to thelongitudinal symmetry of the vehicle (Ling, Genta &amp Morello,2009)

Automotivedesigners build control mechanisms for the orientation of the vehicleabout its center of mass. These mechanisms of control apply forces insome of the directions and produce moments about the aerodynamiccenter of the vehicle. It rotates the vehicle in pitch, roll, or yaw.For instance, a pitch moment is a vertical force that acts at adistance forward or backward from the aerodynamic center of thevehicle. The vehicle thus to pitches up or down. The knowledge ofthese forces (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw moments) is, therefore, importantto vehicle designers because it helps attain stability in the design.

References

Agrawal,S. K. (2006). Internalcombustion engines.New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers.

Bettes,H. (2014). Engineairflow hp1537: A practical guide to airflow theory, parts testing,flow bench testing and analyzing data to increase performance for anystreet or racing engine.New York: HP Books.

Ferguson,C. R., &amp Kirkpatrick, A. (2015). Internalcombustion engines: Applied thermosciences.

Ganesan,V. (2012). ICengines.New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Griffin,T., National Research Council (É.-U.)., Transit CooperativeResearch Program., &amp États-Unis. Federal TransitAdministration. (2006). Centertruck performance on low-floor light rail vehicles.Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board.

Gupta,H. N. (2013). Fundamentalsof internal combustion engine.Delhi: PHI Learning.

Ling,F. F., Genta, G., &amp Morello, L. (2009). TheAutomotive Chassis: Vol. 2: System Design.Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Shi,Y., Ge, H.-W., &amp Reitz, R. D. (2011). Computationaloptimization of internal combustion engines.