Formsof Discrimination in Organizations
Racismserved to be a major form of discrimination that most of the AfricanAmerican, Asians and Indians faced between the 18th and19th century. It drawn racial differences between themajority and minority groups of people that described differences inpower possession. The majority groups constituted of those that heldsuperior powers within the society as opposed to the minority whosestatus denoted inferior social position and their interests were notrepresented fully to participate in politics or on socialinstitutions. The act was not limited at workplace and still remain achallenge to the minority class of people. In fact, individualswithin the workplace, especially employees have encountered variousforms of discrimination based on different factors, and some keymanagers (employers) in organizations are prone to subject theiremployees to certain forms of discrimination. Such prejudices arebased on individual’s race, colour, religion, age, disability andsex when it comes to offering employment opportunities and promotionsin their organizations. However, other forms of discrimination mayinclude sexual harassment and all forms of inequality. Grodskyand Devah (234) states that individuals who perceivehigh levels of such discrimination are likely to experience highanxiety, depression, adverse health outcome, and inferior outcome interms of job performance. The problem, therefore, requires propersolutions to help solving issues at hand to help employers achievetheir objectives set for an organization.
Thenation of Canada, for example, is dependent on immigrants for anumber of factors such as to build the national economy though in thepast years, racism and discrimination of the immigrants was ramped.The nation used to practice Eurocentric immigration policies toeliminate and to exclude particularly a number of able individuals ofcolour. The immigrants’ discrimination is attached to the person’srace and the ethnic group he/she comes or belongs to.
Therights accorded to an individual that regards to benefits andobligations are linked to immigrants’ race and ethnic groups. Theanalysis of the Canadian population indicates that the majority ofits citizens constitute of immigrants who are deprived and infringedof their rights based on the racism practices. The immigrants havelost better job opportunities based on the race factor especially towomen who have been denied chances to serve, on gender basis. Thecountry has not practiced gender equality and the government throughthe law has barred immigrants from running for the elected postswithin the government. Others are denied their rights to vote for thepersons they choose to lead. All the highlighted facts have broughtsevere consequences to women immigrants in Canada creating aninequality to competent members capable of changing organizations tohigher level in achieving the set goals (Grodskyand Devah 145).
Racismbecame ramped especially to the African American (Negros) citizenswhere they were subjected to Jim Crow (a system enforced by law andcustom) separating all the blacks and whites in workplaces, schoolsand within all phases of public life. The system gained support fromthe federal government and the Supreme Court decision that enforcedracial segregation in railroad transportation and access to otherresources. In fact, the southern states amended their constitutionswith an aim of eliminating blacks from participating within politicalarena through voting and taking lead in the managerial roles withinorganizations. The advocates of the Negros civil as well as politicalrights tried to fight for anti-black racism though had few supportfrom national allies.
Thewhite politicians and elite leaders dominated the minority groupbased on the power influence they had thus defended their group. Theyalso proclaimed the inferiority, mental and physical depravity ofblacks from the public scenes and higher learning institutions. Thefederal housing administration also did all their operations in aracial discriminatory manner where they kept the minority off fromowning houses. The federal government segregated the blacks andwhites using state highways. More often, the minority group whooccupied public housing were subjected to live in largely areaspopulated by poor minorities as opposed to whites. Such practicesclearly indicate how there was an increase in racial discriminationamongst citizens.
Employersshould strive at adopting antidiscrimination statute or laws thatfocus on equity among individuals to job opportunities as well astreatment without discrimination of any kind. The use of such rulesin early 1960’s significantly changed the way employers and otherbusiness managers conducted their premises without any disparities.It is evident that there was an increase in job opportunities,especially to employees from group minorities, and racial groups. Thevast impact led to an equal supply of labour as well as an equitableeconomic growth across tribal boundaries (Wakin29). Secondly, organizational leaders (employers) should also adopttrade union equality representatives – a form of workplacerepresentatives assigned to promote fairness in workplaces. The unionhas a mandate to ensure that equality agenda is adopted among theworkers, encourage employers to put equality and diversity as theircenter of service, and to work with every vulnerable worker inachieving the organizational goal. The aim is to ensure everyemployee receives an equal treatment regardless of age, gender, race,religion or disability thus eliminating racial discrimination thatcould occur.
Criteriaused to measure the worth of alternatives set to eliminate racialdiscrimination
Thelisted factors through proper examination can help us come up withbetter strategies aimed to express or reduce racial discrimination:
Theefficiency of the laws to be implemented can be assessed as towhether they apply to workplaces, and the time they take for theiradoption. Active employers who take such measures will immediatelyadopt such statutes as well as forms of employees’ union to enhancean achievement of goals for their organizations. The criteria usedshould be desirable to any employer, be cost effective to adopt, andbe durable to be used for future implementation. Less time should bespent while persuading and engaging organizations to take suchmeasure.
Theinstitutional environment is another factor that can be used toexpress racial discrimination. Organizations, as well asinstitutions, should develop and adopt well-defined norms that worktowards reducing the dire incidence of racial discrimination in allsectors. The United States military can be used as an example of aninstitution that work in the progress of attaining racial equality inthe United States Army (Jakubowski 4). The organization is committedto nondiscrimination practices and anyone who violate the rule faceserious consequences. They have also set high standards ofperformance and creating equal opportunities to every member througheducation, training and mentorship. Nevertheless, the strategiesestablished in the military institution is not limited to otherorganizations.
Indeed,every organization can adopt such policies to help in thereinforcement of diversity as well as racial equality to every memberthus reducing racial disparities that exist in places of work. Thepublic sectors work best through their highly rationalized system ofhiring personnel and in offering remunerations to employees aiming toreduce any form of discrimination that may be evident in the privatesectors. Grodsky andDevah (374)in their research ascertain that the rate of wage gaps by race andgender within the public sectors is low as compared to privatesectors, and black and women are both represented in managerialpositions. When organizations commit their practices towards reducingany form of discrimination, a vast effect can be noticed. Setting upof policies that counteract the effects of racial stereotypes orbiases in an organization can eliminate racial discrimination thuscreating equity to every represented member.
Allforms of formalized decision-making can help minimize the impacts ofsubjective bias. Through technological advancement, some strategiescan be formed to increase the members’ performance and to eliminateall forms of discrimination. Individuals can testify that technologythrough the use of the internet can reduce racial discriminationespecially in employment, housing and in consumer markets. Fortechnology to work best rather than worsening the disparities thatexist in organizations based on the racial discrimination, the issueof access must be adequately addressed. Increasing the accessibilityof internet technology thus remains fundamental in all sectors toreduce racial discrimination.
Fieldresearch or experiments are of great help to offer a direct measureof discrimination practices at the workplace. Qualified individualsfrom a different race or ethnic group are trained to play the part ofthe job seeker to assess the degree of racial consideration when itcomes to access to employment opportunities. The experiment givesfull assurance on the criteria and traits of employers used whenemploying individuals thus the adoption of such alternatives willserve best. Consequently, a prior examination in the contexts atwhich discrimination becomes more or less dominant can also be usedto identify an alternative to employing at the workplace. However,employers should strive for maintaining equality at the workplaceusing the options as mentioned earlier, no group has the power tocontrol the allocations of job opportunities as well as resourcesirrespective of all kinds of discrimination.
Therights of the majority of citizens who lives in Canada are infringedabased on the racism practices that have led them loose employmentopportunities within the country. Others are denied chances toperform within their specialization because of their low level ofeducation. Initiatives are made to shift away from the racismpractice. In order to curb the situation as well as to maintain thecompetitive edge in the global economy, the Canadian government hasimplemented a point system. The main aim is to attract qualifiedimmigrants possessing desirable education and skills.
Inthe ancient days, women used to indulge more in domestic and fromwork but through liberalization, a number of them have participatedin the paid labour force and owning their resources and becomingindependent in the society. All the oppressive authority from homegot diminished and initiated movements that support their equalitywith men in terms of payment and access to other opportunities withinorganizations. Achievement would only be met when resources areavailable in terms of education, money and time. Therefore, through agroup of women who stood firm to demonstrate, petition for theirrights, women won their right to vote across the country’s borders.They also won their right to run for public offices of which theywere deprived.
Areport by Jakubowski (37) on the Citizenship and Immigrant Canada2007 states that in the recent years, 50% of the total immigrants inCanada constituted skilled immigrants The larger numbers of themconstitute of Asian women. The formation of the women’s movementthat operates at both the grassroots level and incorporation ofpolitical organizations has influenced equity to immigrants. Theliberal feminists ascertain that women have rights to participatefully in the society when given equal opportunity with men to servein the society. They, therefore, provide full support and as welladvocate policies aiming to pay equity amongst gender and toeliminate discrimination at workplaces on gender basis (Jakubowski14).
Infact, attaining legal equality would not be enough to ensure thatwomen are given a chance to participate fully in the society. Thegovernment should take an initiative to provide affordable socialamenities and accessible daycare facilities. Through this initiative,they would alleviate economic burden attached to women that preventsworking class team from getting full advantage of the availableopportunities for employment as well as education. The labor lawprotection also has helped the temporary workers who seek for jobopportunities within the Canadian industries. The country depends onthese workers for the country’s economic benefits. The TemporaryForeign Workers Program (TFWP) gives employment opportunities and theright to employment without any discrimination to high-skilledworkers that count towards attaining the best economy.
Conditionswithin workplace that relates to failure in organizing immigrantlabor, should aim at meeting the needs of every citizen. The issuehas become worse and, therefore, the immigrant workers centers haveput joint hand to support the immigrant workers, especially women whoare discriminated in mobilizing to defend their rights. The centersfocus on education, service, organizing and lastly advocacy. Thesetup promotes self-organization of immigrant workers throughinstitutions of work to conduct campaigns and actions. Offeringservices focus on larger strategizing as well as politicalorganizing. They also enable workers to build their organizingexperiences and skills, building connection with differentorganizations and employees, develop staunch leadership styles to beemployed and link immigrant communities with the labordisparities.Conclusion
Descriptionfor sure still remain the source of inequality to the minority groupsthat creates limited ground for developing better employmentopportunities to every staff in an organization. It is throughwomen’s effort that they mentor workers’ center social unionismin organizing immigrant workers being discriminated to reunite themagainst tiers between the workplaces and the community as a whole.Gender equality should be promoted and every an individual,irrespective of race or ethnic groups be given chance to practicetheir legal right. Americashould, therefore be considered as a nation constituting of peopleborn out of cultural diversity. Every citizen has a freedom to choosehis/her home or residential place regardless of differences in skincolor to minimize related discrimination. The government should fightto bring back the equality and merge the whole nation throughequitable resource.
Grodsky,Eric, and Devah Pager. “The Structure of Disadvantage: Individualand Occupational Determinants of the Black-White Wage Gap.” AmericanSociological Review 66.4(2001): 542-67. ProQuest.30 Nov. 2015
GreenAlan, and Green, David. Theeconomic goals of Canada’s immigration policy, past and present(DiscussionPaper No. 96-18). Department of Economics,Universityof British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. 1996. Retrieved November 20,2015, from:http://www.econ.ubc.ca/dp9618gr.pdf
Jakubowski,Lisa Marie. Immigrationand the legalization of racism. Halifax:Fernwood Books. 1997.
Wakin,Malham M. “All that we can be: Black Leadership and RacialIntegration the Army Way.” Society 35.4(1998): 87.ProQuest.30 Nov. 2015