Historyof the White American People
“Whites”are defined as people whose origins are traceable to any of theoriginal people of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East. The tenlargest Ancestors of White Americans are 16.5% German Americans,English Americans contribute 9.2%, Irish Americans 11.9%, theyconsist of 5.5.% Italian Americans, Scottish Americans contribute1.9%, Mexican Americans 5.4%, proportion of French is 4%, PolishAmericans 3%, and lastly Dutch and Norwegian Americans 1.6% and 1.5%respectively. This group that prefers to refer themselves as“Americans” makes up the largest proportion of the Americanpopulation at 77.7% and a figure of approximately 245,532,000according to the 2013 census statistics. Non-Hispanic Whites recordeda remarkable 197,816,000, a proportion of 62.6% of the entire economy(United States Census, 2013).
Inalmost the entire America, White Americans almost contribute thelargest proportion of an area’s population. Areas where they arelacking in numbers are Hawaii, some parts of the south of Americaknown as the Black Belt, many reservations belonging to AmericanIndians, the District of Columbia, as well as many vast urban areasacross the country. In a couple of southwestern states, Non-Hispanicwhites are also not a majority. Generally, the Census Bureauindicated high proportions of the “White alone” in New England,Midwest, the Rocky Mountain States, West Virginia, and Kentucky.Mid-Atlantic and Southern States recorded the least proportions ofwhites.
Interms of educational attainment and income, on the basis of culturalbackground, White Americans have the second highest personal andmedian household income levels nationally. Per every member ofhousehold, the median income for whites was the highest, since thesize of the households across the entire racial demographic was thesmallest among White Americans. According to 2006 statistics, a 25year old White American had a median personal income of $33,030, withthose employed on full time basis earning $34,432. Given that twoincome earners were found in 42% of all the households, asignificantly higher median household income was recorded at $48,554compared to the median individual income, based on 2005 figures. Thisfigure was 10.3% higher than the national median income of $44,389.White Americans also recorded the second lowest rates of povertyacross the racial divide, with a mere 10.8% living below the povertyline, a figure below the national average by 3%. Nonetheless, due totheir large proportion of the total population, 48% of the totalpopulation is White Americans living below the poverty line (UnitedStates Census, 2013).
Therate of education attainment of Whites is only second to that ofAsian Americans. Approximately one-third of the overall WhiteAmerican population had attained at least a Bachelor’s degree, withthose born outside the United States recording higher educationalachievement and 37.6% while the native born recorded 29.7%.Nonetheless, both figures override the national average of 27.2%(United States Census, 2013).
Unlikemany other racial groupings in the U.S., pertaining the developmentof their ethno-racial identity, various causal factors have largelyimpacted on the white Americans, mainly emanating from the whiteAmerican’s dominance in the United States. Since the 15thcentury North American arrival of Europeans, compared to the otherethno-racial groups, more power was granted to whites, initially bymeans of a racial dictatorship and nowadays through a racialdemocracy. Through their dominion over other groups, white Americangoals have been converted into American goals, whereas culture of thewhites has become American culture. Due to the prominence of thisnotion, whites have construed a “hidden ethnicity”. Due to thenaturally-occurring labor, political, social, presidential, andcultural advantages, white Americans face a great challenge inidentifying with their lofty status and comprehending their role inthe reproduction and persistence of white hegemony. This idea howeverstrongly resonates among the minorities who are highly aware of theunbalanced resource distribution in American society.
Whiteshave undeniably immensely gained from their dominant status. Throughinstitutional favourism and/or discrimination and political means,whites bear the ability to reproduce their power, to delegitimizeother groups’ ethno-racial identities by disregarding their own,and to put into effect their racial ideologies to justify otherpeoples’ failures. Due to their domineering status, whites attainthe ability to adhere to prejudicial feelings, to not sense any wrongin holding short-sighted racist ideas, and issue other groups’members treatment that equates them to mere representatives of thatgroup. As such, it is as if whites are exempted from attaining asense of “double-consciousness,” or the duality of being anAmerican and a minority ethno-racial group member. As the dominantgroup, the threat of perceived competition is eminent to whites. Thismeans that they have been compelled to stretch their membership toother groups and bear a reactionary approach to any arising threat totheir status. Consequently, the need for whites to maintain theirstatus quo has resulted to racist realities such as Jim Crow laws,affirmative action policies dislike, and an overall desire tosideline themselves from other groups.
Thecommon culture of white Americans is the White American Culture whichholds common ways of thinking and set of understanding. It bearsstriking similarities with the Anglo-American culture which alsoencompasses English-speaking Canada. There is a striking differencebetween all the white Americans in terms of their backgrounds andexperiences, how they independently think and act, and are not slavesor living stereotypes to their culture. Nonetheless, most whitesstill share a common culture. This is mainly derived from schoolteachings and television broadcasts. This is the reason why whitesuburbs resemble each other across cities. The white’s commonculture can be said to be more white than black, more Protestant thanCatholic, Jewish or Muslim and more Anglo than Latin.
MostAmericans are bothered by the calling of anything “white” due toits skinhead connotation. To most whites, the term contravenes theircolor-blind racism. Nonetheless, it is factual that the sharedculture of whites varies greatly from that of black Americans. Racismcomfortably lies within the core of the white culture and trying tosugar-coat that fact is detrimental to the society. Thus, it is notjust American culture, but rather white American culture. A WhiteAmerican culture also differs immensely from white Australian orwhite British culture.
FilmViewed: The General’s Daughter
Director,Company, Year: Simon West, 1999
MajorThemes: Death/ homicide, Sex, Sexual Trauma, Art and Creativity
Inthis movie, we experience the mysterious and grisly death of an armyCaptain by the name of Elisabeth Campbell, the daughter to ArmyGeneral Campbell. At the time of her death, Capt. Campbell wasserving as a psychologist. John Travolta, playing the role of WarrantOfficer Paul Brenner, first becomes Capt. Campbell’s patient as hefaces psychological fatigue that she helps release. This marks thebeginning of their friendship, albeit only one meeting, until shemeets her untimely death.
Themeof sexual trauma is depicted in the movie whereby few days after themeeting between Capt. Campbell and W.O. Brenner, Capt. Campbell’snaked and strangled body is discovered, in a ‘legs- apart’posture. Most of the scenes involving the death of the victim arederailed due to the bizarreness of the circumstances leading to thevictim’s death. Despite the writer striving to pass the theme ofdeath within the movie in an effective way, critics are of theopinion that the graphic nature that Capt. Campbell’s death hasbeen portrayed was very much exaggerated that it leaves an almostdisturbing effect on the viewer. Since the nature of the movie isneither a documentary nor a fiction, I think that the depiction ofthe death went overboard. The state at which Capt. Campbell’s bodywas found to be clearly depicts that she underwent a lot of sexualtrauma before her death.
Anotherprominent theme is that of art and creativity. In the movie we seehow the Army base where Gen. Campbell resides is decorated withfurnishings that create an impression of an Architectural Digest. Therooms that Gen. Campbell occupies are full of leather, wood, crystal,brass, weapons and flags. We establish that Gen. Campbell is a warhero.
Thereis the theme of sex in the workplace also as depicted when we becomeaware of the fact that Madeleine Stowe played by Sarah Sunhill, hadbeen in an affair with John Travolta once when they were in Brussels.Travolta later comes to the realization that the chief’s son anddeputy had a romantic relationship with the victim. On probing theissue further, Travolta identifies a room in Capt. Campbell’sbasement that remains secretive and in it he finds S&M equipmentand props, an automatic video system, as well as numerousincriminating tapes. Eventually Travolta realizes from universallyspread gossip and the tapes that the Gen. Campbell’s daughter hadseemingly been having sexual intercourse with almost every malemember of the general’s staff.
30 th June 2013
EventAttended: Roskilde Festival
MajorThemes: Underage sex, rape, sexual trauma
Sincemy taste in music is quite dynamic and thus I can enjoy listening toalmost all genres of music. I decided to attend a concert where BruceSpringteen, the founder of E Street band and a veteran pop and rockartiste was among the main acts. As the concert progressed, therecame a time that I needed to ease myself and therefore went in searchof the gents washrooms. As I was approaching the washrooms, I thoughtI heard screams coming from there, but again due to the loud musicand screams from the revelers, it hadn’t hit my mind that therecould be any peculiar occurrence. However, the truth hit me when Ientered the gents’ washroom, and the loud screams were really criesfor help from a lady who was fighting a potential rapist. “Somebodyplease help, help me…he is raping me, please somebody help”, thedistressed lady shouted. Immediately, I acted on impulse and knockedhard on the door where the screams came from while calling out forthe culprit to stop whatever he was doing to the lady. However, therewas no response and the door for that cubicle was locked from inside.Realizing that time was of the essence and I could avert a potentialrape situation, I kicked the door as hard as I could until the lockand the door went wide open. My first sight was that of a teenage boywith his pants pulled down to the knees and a teenage girl with hertop torn and trouser button and zipper open. Immediately I realizedit was a rape situation so I threw one heavy punch on the boy thatknocked him flat out and then removed my jacket to cover thehalf-naked girl who was deep in tears and tightly hugging me as asign of how she was scared and traumatized by the event. Aftercalling security on the culprit in the washroom, I went and sat withher at a standby ambulance within the concert vicinity, I had achance to interview her abit after she had calmed down and stoppedthe crying and shaking.
Thegirl told me her she was called Wendy (disguised) and that she was asophomore student attending a certain University in the neighborhood.On asking her on whether she knew the culprit, she positivelyidentified him as Josh (disguised) and that they were classmates inthe same Campus and that Josh had shown interest in her numeroustimes previously and that her fears that he had developed anobsession towards her had been confirmed by the incident. Afterprobing her more, she informed me that previously Josh had touchedher inappropriately and had pressured her to have sex with him evenafter she had turned down her proposals to be his girlfriend a coupleof times. He had even resulted to threaten to hurt her if she did notyield to his demands, an incident she had reported to schoolauthorities and her parents but she did not have proof to support theallegations. On this day however, Josh seemed to have gotten anopportunity to track her during the event and follow her without herknowledge and he managed to forcefully pull her into the gents’washroom and into one of the cubicles and her cries had gone unheardsince it was a less busy section of the arena. After she had calmeddown completely, I accompanied her to the police post within thearena whereby we made an official statement of the incident and as weparted ways, she could not thank me enough for saving her from thatvery traumatic incident. “Thank you very much, you are reallyheaven sent. If it were not for you, I would have been robbed off myinnocence and virginity…I cannot thank you enough. God bless you”,said Wendy repeatedly.
Boththese two immersion exercises depict the very common theme of sexualtrauma. The way Capt. Campbell’s naked and strangled body isdiscovered, in a ‘legs- apart’ posture. Most of the scenesinvolving the death of the victim are derailed due to the bizarrenessof the circumstances leading to the victim’s death. The graphicnature that Capt. Campbell’s death has been portrayed in the movie‘The General’s Daughter’ was very much exaggerated that itleaves an almost disturbing effect on the viewer. The state at whichCapt. Campbell’s body was found to be clearly depicts that sheunderwent a lot of sexual trauma before her death.
InWendy’s case, the fact that Josh had previously touched herinappropriately and had pressured her to have sex with him even aftershe had turned down her proposals to be his girlfriend a numeroustimes. He had even resulted to threaten to hurt her if she did notyield to his demands, an incident she had reported to schoolauthorities and her parents but she did not have proof to support theallegations.
Anothervery eminent theme is portrayed in Wendy’s incident. The fact thatJosh (the culprit) is a seventeen year old this depicts how themodern day youths are largely exposed to negative media such thatthey end up developing such sexual imageries and urges at a tenderage. For Josh to go to such extent to start engaging in sexualmolestation, this means that it was something that had beendeveloping in his mind for quite a long time.
Thisproblem of sexual trauma/ assault can be solved by differentauthoritative figures taking up their roles in stopping this vice.While parents should strictly keep watch on their children to see thekind of programs they watch on television and evaluate the impactthey may have on them, the television stations should also have aprogramming policy that compels all programs to show a restrictiveage limit during their airing, as well as adult programs strictlybeing aired during late nights when children are already asleep.Educational institutions ought to have guidance and counsellingdepartments to psychologically counsel victims of such sexual traumaas well as training the culprits on how they can handle their sexualurges by channeling their energies towards more constructiveactivities such as sports. Law enforcement agencies should alsoensure that anyone who is alleged to be engaged in such sexualharassment actions face the full force of the law by being punishedthrough the legal system. Lastly, the legislature and judiciaryshould enact and uphold laws that strictly prohibit sexual assault.
Culturalcompetence of Anchor House Placement Agency, NJ and its programs andservices
Nameof Field Placement Agency: Anchor House Placement Agency
Addressof Agency: PO Box 2357 Trenton, New Jersey 08607-2357
Theneighborhood can be described as being calm with a lot oftranquility. The population around the agency is majorly friendly andconsists of a combination of different ethnic and racial groups suchas white Americans, black Americans, Hispanics, and Latinocommunities. The Agency’s employees majorly consist of all theabove mentioned racial and ethnic groups in order to make it easy toparticipate in community outreach programs since it is easier for thestaff to be accepted and listened to by people of belonging to theirown grouping as opposed to a different one.
Surroundingthe agency, there exist agencies such as Boys and Girls Club ofTrenton, 212 Centre Street Trenton, NJ. Where there exist otherprograms such as the Smart Futures program that is a YouthDevelopment Program offering educational, prevention, and physicalservices to the community with a full range of facilities. There isalso a summer camp charging $40 weekly and offering a full range ofactivities such as swimming pool, gym, games room, and outdooractivities such as hiking, cycling, and fishing, among others.Another Agency is Greater Trenton CMHC, Inc. Trenton, NJ 08607. Itoffers a program by the name of FACES- Behavioral Health Serviceswhich deals in: educating mental and human service providers, healtheducation, and treatment of mental health issues. Another program isFamily Addiction Groups that supports children aged 5-10 yearstogether with their drug and alcohol recovery parents. The programdevelops meaningful relationships, enhancing positive self-esteem,and proper decision making. Another agency is Family Transitions–FTSS 310 S. Clinton Ave. Trenton, NJ 08609. Within this agency isthe Family Transition Program which offers such services as advocacy,mentoring, job skills, aftercare/community linkage, familyassessments, teens summer enrichment camps, work program, andparenting classes. Another agency is Urban League of MetropolitanTrenton, 235 East Hanover St. Trenton, NJ 08608. The West WardCommunity Center offers services such as youth football andbasketball leagues and open gym. The North Clinton Ave. CommunityCenter also offers recreation facilities such as table-top games andactivities centered on families. In addition, also offered arestudents tutoring program and an adults’ computer center. PEI Kids,Inc. 231 Lawrence Rd. Lawrenceville, NJ 08648. The agency offers aprogram by the name Crisis Intervention for Child Victims of SexualAbuse offers services such as counselling for child sexual abusevictims of ages 3-18 together with their families. Parents andsiblings’ group meetings are organized fortnightly. There is alsoan abuse reactive counselling program targeting under12 years of agechildren. What is also unique is the fact that counselling isundertaken in both English and Spanish. Juvenile Offenders OutreachProgram is designed for children aged 12-17 years first-andsecond-time offenders who come to the realization of inappropriatebehavior and foster positive values, self-worth, and respect for therule of law and authority at large.
Sincemembers of my chosen population are teens who have financialchallenges, they mainly use public transportation in the form ofbuses. These members of my sample population do not travel for longdistances since they come just from neighborhoods or streets in closevicinity to the agency. For those who cannot make their way to theagency, the Anchor House Agency under the Anchor Link programproactively engages with street urchins and other youth dwelling onthe streets through street visits and outreach efforts with an aim oflowering incidences of runaway homelessness, as well as to developlong-lasting relationships with youth culminating to services thatassist them productively participate in societal development.
Lookingat the décor the reception itself is designed in such a way that itattracts clients and makes them feel comfortable enough. The colorscheme is made up of warm attractive colors of luminous green andorange which makes one have a positive perception towards life. Thefurniture mainly consists of antique type designs made from hardwoodsuch as mahogany and oak. The noise level is quite low thus giving acalm ambience. The clients interact well since most of them meet andengage each other on a daily basis and thus have developed a strongbrotherhood bond. The clients treat the staff with love,appreciation, and respect whereas, the staff reciprocate by beingwarm and concerned towards them. The brochures are availed in aformat that is easily understandable, with pronounced headings andeasy language with attractive color schemes. I as well as any othervisitor to the agency would feel comfortable and welcomed due to theprevailing warm and positive atmosphere. The color scheme of the roomespecially reflects my personality as being a positive-minded, warm,and joyful individual.
Administrationand Staff Training
Theagency organizes events such as workshops, trainings, retreats, amongother forums to discuss issues of diversity at least on a monthlybasis with all the employees expected to attend and guest speakerssuch a prominent Psychologists and motivational speakers beinginvited to help staff gain knowledge of how to deal with certaintough situations.
Theagency’s funding is mainly targeted towards recruiting diverseworkforce such as psychologists and social workers. The fundsreceived by the agency are also channeled towards the enhancement ofculturally sensitive activities. The agency is also funding thedevelopment of services that are offered in different languages apartfrom English such as Spanish. Funds are obtained from certainactivities such as cycling for charity for instance the ‘Ride forRunaways’ program and ‘Cory’s Ride’ program.
Theagency’s staff is sensitive to special client needs meaning thatthey seek to meet the clients’ at their points of need. The staffare also taught on how to be non-judgmental and supporting thedecisions taken by any of the clients. The staff hold the clients inhigh regard, Professionals and staff is are trained not to stereotypeclients and should also embrace a high level of formality especiallythat they use on employing this.
Thisis a program that is offered on a 24-hour basis targeted towardshomeless, runaway, and youth who are at-risk aged between 12 and 17years within Trenton, New Jersey. Homeless, runaway youth are free towalk into Anchor House Shelter facilities to join the program at anytime round the clock, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The corepurpose of the shelter is to immediately meet the needs of homelessand runaway youth, and to offer prompt actions in reuniting them withtheir families. Anchor House’s core business is to engageintensively with youth together with their families in undertakingcrisis stabilization and enhancing family relationships. Servicesoffered by Anchor House include individual and family counselling,crisis intervention, temporary shelter, outreach, advocacy, food andclothing, as well as support groups. In case family reunification isdeemed impossible, Anchor House collaborates with the youth to ensurethey come up with an alternative, safe place to live. All servicesare offered at no cost.
AnchorHouse Shelter offers the following services:
Drop in and hotline crisis intervention,
Transportation, temporary housing, and recreation,
Family, group, and individual counselling
Counselling of out client
Referrals and advocacy
Parent Support groups
Thepopulation aging out of the realm of care provided by the AnchorHouse, Inc. is served by the Anchorage Transitional Living Program(TLP). The establishment of Anchorage dates back to 1992 and itsservices includes the provision of life skills and residentialservices to youth aged 18-21 who are homeless to ensure theirsuccessful and smooth transition to independence. Upon intake to theprogram, assessment key areas include individual client’s lifeskills and needs with the sole aim of advancing these skillsgradually, through a standardized system, for purposes of attainingthe sole goal of independence. Emphasis is mainly placed on enhancingeducational and employment achievements while bolstering theresident’s stabilization and theurepatic needs. During placement,skilled training is passed on to residents in the target areas ofemployment, education, nutrition, budgeting and saving, timemanagement, access to community resources, communication andsocializing skills, health and wellness, self advocacy, as well aspersonal enrichment. The goal of the program is for residents toattain the status of living independently with enough money stashedaway in savings, with a proper educational plan, and sufficientemployment to support independent living. Residents enrolled in theprogram have been confirmed to save on average $8-$10,000, with agreater majority progressing education wise and progressing to betteropportunities and living standards.
Services of this program include:
Long term placement, medical attention, food, and clothing
Group and individual counselling
Psychological and psychiatric evaluations/ Therapeutic support
Education on life skills
Educational and employment services
Community referrals and advocacy for out clients and residents
Aftercare follow up
Thisprogramme is basically the agency’s Street Outreach Programoffering services to youth aged between 14 and 21 years. The primarypurpose of this program is to proactively engage with street urchinsand other youth dwelling on the streets with an aim of loweringincidences of runaway homelessness, as well as to developlong-lasting relationships with youth culminating to services thatassist them productively participate in societal development.Services provided include counselling, crisis intervention, jobsearch assistance, shelter services linkages or arrangements for safeliving, community programs referrals, life skills education,advocacy, and transportation.
Helping resolve self-image issues, housing issues, family issues, issues to do with sexuality, and school issues
Resume writing, job hunting, interviewing tips, and life skills
Educational and career choices guidance. The program boasts a detailed information and knowledge base to assist youth in weighing their options based on their skills and abilities and eventually decide the best approach to life in the real world.
A secure place to engage with a counselor without fear of being unheard or undermined
Thisis a Permanent Apartment Program that collaborates with young adultswho are homeless and with ages that range from 18-21 years. Thesupport provided by Anchor Line is normally in the form of provisionof food, subsidized housing, case management, and education on lifeskills that aim at equipping them with the skills and time requiredfor them to live independently. Youths residing in the apartmentprogram are compelled to seek employment that will boost theirself-sustenance, and are vehemently encouraged to attend school,engage in counselling, and train in life skills that will assist themattain their independence. Anchor Line’s resources are only limitedto serving four youth simultaneously for a duration lasting as longas need be.
Whatis provided by the Anchor Line Youth Supported Housing Project:
Secure accommodations for a maximum of four youth
Clothing, food, and transportation
Expansive education on life skills and assessments
Computer literacy skills
Advocacy and case management
Furthermore,the program will ensure the linkage of youth to employment,educational services, driving school, dental and medical care,behavioral health analysis and psychiatric services, among othersupport services. It is the duty of the Anchor Line staff to assistemployees to optimize all the available services facilitated by theprogram and the wider communities that will greatly assist them applytheir newly attained skills.
AnchorLine Apartments: A Permanent Supportive Housing Program of AnchorHouse Inc.
Bydescription, Permanent Supportive Housing Programs (PSH) are housingunits that are affordable and integrated with support services thatenable young adults live more productive and stable lives. At AnchorLine Apartments, a pair of young adults will jointly sign a lease ashousemates. The tenants have to commit 30% of their total incometowards the apartment rent. Support services staff work hand in handwith Support Services staff in the continuity of their tenancy whileworking wards education attainment.
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Ebert,R (1999). TheGeneral’s Daughter.Retrieved from:
MercerCounty Youth Programs Resource Directory. Retrievedfrom:<http://nj.gov/counties/mercer/departments/pdfs/youth_programs.pdf> [Accessed: 23/11/2015]
UnitedStates Census. AmericanFactfinder.Retrieved from: <http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml>[Accessed: 23/11/2015]