Research Methodology



Thisessay will be a plan of research on the afghan-soviet war. Theresearch will utilize all the data from various sources and analyzethem accordingly. The research will be conducted with a purpose toget results inform of data on Afghanistan and her people. Theresearch will be conducted using qualitative methods. Reason is toensure that the data which will be collected is of good quality andtherefore reliable. Thus careful analysis will be done on the sourcesused before collecting any data. Recording of the data will also bedone after thorough analysis on the data and information. As will bedescribing later in this essay, reports from internationalorganizations will also be used to collect the data and information.The international organizations which will be used include the UnitedNations and the ISAF. Such organizations will be very useful in thecollection of the data. Such organizations are reliable sources andtrustworthy sources in terms of data collection. Thus, they willgreatly add to the research on Afghanistan since the afghan-sovietwar between 1979 and 1989. ISAF is a very reliable source since theorganization is directly involved with the citizens of Afghanistan.The organization also was involved and still is with the research onthe war and peace treaties in Afghanistan (Fink, 2008).


Backgroundresearch will also be done before embarking on the research process.The background research will be done about the country of Afghanistanand the wars in the country. The background research is necessary foreasier understanding of the research. The background research will bedone using various peer reviewed research articles and journals. Thearticles and journals must have been conducted within the last fouryears and in the country of Afghanistan. The peer reviewed journalsand articles will be found from the various libraries especiallyonline libraries. The reason for using the articles and journals isbecause they contain very relevant information to the topic. Thearticles and journals have all been written from scholars who havedone thorough research on the topic. The articles and journalstherefore are a great source of information about the topic. The datacollected from the articles and research journals is trustworthy andvery reliable for our topic (Creswell, 2008).

Moreover,as mentioned earlier, international organizations will be used in theresearch process. The international organizations will used tocollect security data thus the using of such organizations will beassociated with data collection. The United Nations and ISAF will beused in the collection of data. The organizations are used becausethey have direct involvement in the war in afghan and they have beenconducting research in afghan for the last decade. Thus, suchinternational organizations will be used to provide reliable andtrustworthy data which is very relevant to the topic. The securitydata explains how the conflict was used to create a powerful afghangovernment. The government was to be used to protect and preventAfghanistan from the extremists. Thus, the security data will be ofgreat use in this research and assist in the collection of the data(Fink, 2008).


Theresearch will begin by data collection. The data collected must berelevant and explain the Afghanistan war. The data should alsoexplain how the country is fairing since the last war. The datashould describe the results of the afghan-soviet war and the effectsespecially to the people of Afghanistan as a country. Through thedata careful conclusions will be made. First collection of the datamust be outlined and various methods will be used. In collectingdata, various methods will be used. As mentioned earlier, qualitativemethods will be used for reliable data and information collection.The methods used include:

  1. Observation.

Observationwill be used to collect the data in Afghanistan. The observation willmainly focus on the Afghanistan relationship with other countries.The observation will also focus on the relationship betweenAfghanistan and her citizens. The peace treaties from Afghanistanwill also be observed carefully. Un-obstructive observation will beused to get natural results. Interacting with the people ofAfghanistan will be of great effect and will enable in the attainingof better information (Creswell, 2008).

  1. Surveys.

Thesurveys will be done for the qualitative data. The qualitative datawill incorporate the written answers and descriptions in the variousfields. The information will be analyzed effectively and combinedwith the survey questions. The information will be mainly from thebackground research on the relevant topic as describe in this essay.The survey method will be used to categories the data collected foreasier manipulation of the data. The survey method will be used toget data from the people of Afghanistan. Moreover, surveys to thepeople who were directly involved with the war will be very useful(Fink, 2008).

  1. Interviews

Interviewswill be used in data collection also in order to learn more about theafghan-soviet war and its results. The interviews will be mainly doneto the people of Afghanistan. The people of Afghanistan will beinterviewed for the purpose of collecting data on how theafghan-soviet war affected them. Face to face interviews arerecommended for easier manipulation of data got and feedback.Moreover, if it is possible, the preferred interview location is inafghan. The location is chosen in order it get firsthand informationabout the topic on afghan-soviet war and its effects. During theinterview process, recording will be done in order to eliminate biasand for easier retrieval of information. The recording is done inorder to directly quote the individual being interviewed during dataanalysis. The recording is done to get clear points from theinterview and to enable in doing follow up work on the researchquestion. The recording equipment used will be electrical devicessuch as mp3s, mobile phones and cameras. Permission will be requestedto the participant first before recording in order to maintain mutualrespect. Permission is also needed from an individual to providereliable and trustworthy information (Creswell, 2008).


Carefulanalysis will be done on the collected data and conclusions made. Thedata collected is expected to explain the afghan-soviet war and howthe government was using conflicts to prevent extremists in theafghan country. Analysis of data will incorporate the recording ofthe data in writing form. The writing form will include graphs,tables and diagrams used to explain the results of the conflict inafghan. There data will be analyzed and arguments will be based madeon the collected data. The arguments are done to increase accuracyand thus, the research will achieve its purpose (Creswell, 2008).


CreswellJohn. ResearchDesign: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods

Approaches.3rd ed. Oaks,CA: Sage Publications, 2008.

FinkArlene. Howto Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide.4thed. Thousand

Oaks,CA: Sage Publications, 2008.

Research methodology


Nameof the institution

21November 2015


Inthis study, the technique used to collect information is thequestionnaire. Through the questions that will be randomlydistributed to the sample selected, each respondent will provideanswers to the series of questions. The questionnaires will bestructured for the interview as well as written survey.Questionnaires are the instrument that consist series of questions(Pickard, 2007). For this study, the questionnaire will survey thepurpose promoting and gathering information regarding the way theyouths are influenced by the celebrities` behavior.


Conveniencesampling will be used to study the sample population. Conveniencesampling is used on populations that can [seemingly] represent theentire population. It is a form of non-probability sampling wheresubjects are used basing on their capacity to contribute to thestudy. The subjects of the study are youths, and they are simplyaccessible. Therefore, convenient sampling in this study will enablethe researcher to select the subjects that are convenient to thestudy. Also, convenient sampling is valuable due to proximity to theyouth.


Accordingto Pickard (2007), every research study needs a budget. Developing abudget in this study will help in planning the whole process of theresearch clearly. The budget in this research will be used to printout the questionnaire copies that will be used in the survey. Thebudget will be relatively low as printing a questionnaire is notexpensive. Printing the questionnaires will cost the researcher atabout 45.75$.

Independentand Dependent Variables

Forthe result of the research to be successfully achieved the connectionbetween the independent variable and the dependent variable should bemade in the study (Pickard, 2007). The independent variable in thisstudy is the celebrity influence while the dependent variable thatwill be used in the research is the young students or the 12th-gradestudents. The research aims at connecting the independent variablewith the dependent variable, and showing to what degree the IVaffects the DV.


Thesample population is the 12th-grade students. A total of 300 studentswere interviewed: 150 students were from public schools while theremaining 150 from private schools. The students were requested toinput their responses to the questions asked in the interviewquestions. In the questionnaire, 30 students agreed that they hadbeen influenced by celebrities to engage in negative behavior, while50, 40, and 30 agreed that they had been influenced by celebrityinfluence as shown below.

Formof questionnaire and questions used in this study is as follows

Haveever been influenced by any celebrity?

  • Yes – 220

  • No – 80

Ifyes how many times have ever copied celebrity behaviors such asdressing style and taking drugs?

  • Once – 30

  • 2 to 5 times – 50

  • 6 to 10 times – 40

  • More than 15 times – 30

Myfavorite celebrity makes me want to…every time I see him/her on theT.V.

Studentsalso filled consent forms as a formality to ensure that they werewell-versed with what was required from them and the possible risksof participating in the research.

Comparisonof the survey with another source of the data

Comparingthe survey with another source of data such as the video watchedregarding the influence of the celebrities to the youths makes theresearcher be able to compare the result of the study and the survey.

First,the video shows the way celebrities impact the youth. The youth inthe video admit openly that they would do something illegal if askedto do it by these celebrities. These youths also state that they dowhat they do because these celebrities do them. The video also showshow these celebrities behave in public, how they dress, and how theyinfluence the masses. Some of the images that these celebritiesportray is negative, and, by extension, indirectly influences how theyoung people who idolize them will most likely behave (YouTube,2014).


Amanda.(2014). Celebrities And Their Influence On Our Youth [Video file].Retrieved from

Pickard,A. (2007). Research methods in information. London: Facet.

Research Methodology



Qualitativeresearch will be used in this study. Qualitative research aims togather a deep understanding of the human conduct and behavior and thereasons that govern such behavior (Bleich &ampPekkanen, 2012). Aninterview was conducted with an expert and professional in thisfield.

Asemi-structured interview was used to gather information relating toethical concerns facing the healthcare system. The interview entailedthe asking and getting answers from the nurse manager in Labor anddelivery (L&ampD) at California Pacific Medical Center (CPMC),Shirley Johnson. A semi-structured interview was identified as theapt methods to gather information on the subject because severalquestions that assist to define the core areas to be explored can beused and the interviewer has an opportunity to diverge in order topursue an important aspect or response (Berry, 2009). Interview as amethod of gathering information on the ethical issues in thehealthcare setting is appropriate because it provides theparticipants with some guidance on what to talk about, which is veryhelpful (Seidman, 2013)The flexibility provided by this method allows for the elaboration ofinformation that is very crucial to this study.

Anurse manager is chosen to participate in the interview because amanager is at the right administrative position to observe aspectsrelating to ethics and shortage of labor in the healthcare system. Inaddition, a manager may be in a nurse manager is in a position wherethey can speak about sensitive issues such as one relating to ethicsissues at the institution. A nurse manager is also expected to bewell informed about the prevailing situation in the healthcaresystem. Most of the interviewers responses were recorded inform ofwritten notes in the course of the interview.


Berry,R.S. (2009). Collecting data by in-depth interviewing.Retrieved from:

Bleich,E. and Pekkanen, R. (2012). Howto Report Interview Data.Cornell University Press. Retrieved from:

Seidman,I. (2013). Interviewingas qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and thesocial sciences.New York: Teachers College Press.