Report:The Growth of Microglia
Report:The Growth of Microglia
TheRise of the Microgliais a new research conducted by neuroscientists to show how the immunecells of the brain can affect development and diseases. The articlewas written by Diana kwon and published in the Scientific American.The microglia are hardly studied because they are mainly known forbeing the primary defenders, but lately the scientist have realizedthat they play a significant role when the brain is developing, whichmay be concerned with neurodegenerative and developmental disorders(Kwon, 2015) .
Studieshave shown that 10 percent of the cells in the brain are formedduring the early stages of development (Kwon, 2015). On the otherhand, when the microglia is activated in a sick brain duringdevelopmental stages, it can locate the injured neurons and separatethe connection between them. Thus, the scientists stopped viewing themicroglia as inactive immune cells and started evaluating them basedon their significant role in health and sickness of the brain. Anexperiment conducted in 2005 showed that the microglia was the fastedmoving cells in a healthy brain. Later, more studies discovered thatthe microglia had branches that reached out to the adjacent neuronsand contacting synapses. Thus, the results proved that the microgliacells were involved in more functions in the brain (Kwon, 2015).Accordingly, the results of these studies caused scientists toexplore the underlying mechanism of the microglia cells.
Researchwas carried out in EuropeanMolecular Biology Laboratoryand StevenLaboratory, andthe results suggested that the brain’s protective label thatprevents the healthy cells from being destroyed by the body’simmune system can also protect the brain against microglia activity.Therefore, lack of the receptor prevents the tag from protecting thecells, which leads to excess microglia and excessive reduction ofneuron connections (Kwon, 2015). However, other cells ensure that themicroglia eliminates the weak connections, which damage the brainfunction. Studies have found that people suffering from autism andschizophrenia have an increased level of microbial cells. Otherunpublished research also shows that microglia is present during theearly stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, unlocking theeffects of microglia could reduce the synaptic loss experienced inHuntington’s disease. However, although the microglia activationoccurs during early stages of development, the cell’s pruningcapabilities might be reactivated later in life thus, causing adisease (Kwon, 2015).
Thepurpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the microgliaaffects the brain conditions and functions. It expresses the newideas by showing how the scientists have engaged in an activeresearch to study the role of microglia in health and disease.Therefore, it explains the link between the microglia activation itseffects on conditions such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally,the article explains the primary function of the microglia cells insensing and reducing any the damaged cells in the brains when thebrain is exposed to a disease or injury (Kwon, 2015).
Thestudies have shown that microglia is no longer considered inferiorcells whose functions are primarily based on defending the brain.Instead, it has now been proven that it can affect the developmentand functions of the brain through diseases. Therefore, when themicroglia is taken as a key to future therapeutics, it will help intreating a broad range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders(Kwon, 2015). However, as a new field, there are more questions,which require an in-depth study of the microglia cells to offer acomplete analysis. Consequently, the available information onmicroglia functions is expected to receive more input from scientistsas they are now embarking on more research on the cells, which isexpected to be presented in next year’s Society for NeuroscienceConference (Kwon, 2015).
Kwon,D. (2015). Rise of the Microglia. ScientificAmerican.Retrieved fromhttp://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rise-of-the-microglia/