Tableof Contents

1.0 Industry introduction and the Importance of quality 3

2.0 zChocolat Company Profile 3

2.1 Mission statement 3

2.2 Core values 4

2.3 Quality: Quality: Quality 4

3.0 General Objective of the study 4

3.1 Total quality management 4

3.2 Six sigma 4

3.3 Lean process 5

3.4 Lean six sigma 5

4.0 Quality processes in Chocolate manufacturing 5

4.1 Manufacturing standards quality 5

4.2 Quality certification 6

4.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) 6

4.4 Allergen management 6

4.5 Benchmarking 6

4.6 Control charts 7

4.7 Multivariate models 9

5.0 Recommendations 10

5.1 Need to improve performance 10

5.2 Control plan 10

5.3 Implement the 5s 10

5.4 Utilize mistake proofing 10

6.0 Conclusion 11

References 12

1.0 Industryintroduction and the Importance of quality

zChocolatwas established in France in 1999, its geographical segmentation hasachieved a global footprint. The industry grew by 2.8% in 2014 anditstood at USD87, 503.6 million in the same year. In the next 5years, empirical estimates indicate that the industry will grow by amargin of 14.9% (revenue base) and 2.1% volume wise. Europe is thelargest market for chocolate products accounting for 49.9% as at 2014(Global Chocolate Confectionery, 2015). Quality assurance isessential in the manufacture of chocolate as there is a possibilityof metallic and other forms of non-metallic contaminants such glassor stones.Therefore, quality mechanisms are developed to ensure thesafety of the products produced.

2.0 zChocolat CompanyProfile

Thiscompany started in France and the start-up was a sole proprietorship. Its first line of specialization was the gourmet chocolate thatwas designed by Pascal Caffet. zChocolat prides itself in uniquenessof customer experience and products. The firm has centralized itscustomer care management and its core mission is to ensure quality oftheir products. zChocolat has grown from a small operation in to anmultinational organization where it serves customers world over,through its digital platform(zChocolat,2015).

Itscustomer base resides in more than 180,000 and it currently operatesin 79 countries where most of them are concentrated in the US, Europeas well as the EMEA. It ships half of its brand chocolates todifferent countries through DHL and 90% of its products are purchasedfor gift-giving purchases. Currently, its core chocolate brandsinclude Dark Z chocolate, White Z chocolate. It marketing strategyis mainly word—of mouth and also incorporates other brand marketingmix strategies (Global Chocolate Confectionery, 2015).

2.1 Mission statement

zChocolatcore mission is quality assurances, and equally it is committed toelevating the aspect of giving by enhancing excellence,elegance aswell as intelligence(zChocolat,2015).In principle strives to ensure that their efforts leave a grand aswell as a lasting impression to a customer located anywhere in theworld.

2.2 Core values

zChocolatis service oriented organization that is 100% focused on creating thebest customer experience. The internal culture remains humble andattention has to been given to both verbal and non-verbalcommunication from customers(zChocolat,2015).

2.3 Quality: Quality:Quality

Therepeated word strives to reinforce the manner in which zChocolatviews quality. In zChocolat, quality is the base value upon which allother operations and processes are based. Quality compromise isuntenable in zChocolat and attention is equally given to beauty andpurity. Quality is embodied in all process since zChocolat view asthe market differentiation factor(Worldguide.eu,2015).zChocolat is available globally through its e-platform but it hasopened physical stores in the US, UK and Dubai.

3.0 General Objectiveof the study

Foodproduction is a sensitive area that is subject to numerous safetydecrees and regulations. Chocolate lies within this realm and it aretherefore subject to contamination from metallic or non-metallicimpurities. In this regard, the whole production process is verysensitive as quality must be ensured. The object of this report is toanalyze work flow problem that may constraint quality controlmeasures. The sampling technique used is the judgmental andelectronicquestionnaires were used as the tool for collecting primary data fromvarious respondents and the sample size was 17. Secondary data wascollected from zChocolat database and was tabulated in an excelspreadsheet.

3.1 Total qualitymanagement

Thismodel is essential in manufacturing in that it prevails uponemployees and employers to improve the general quality of theorganization. Employees in the manufacturing segment are encouragedto look out for areas that require improvements (Goetsch&amp‎ Davis, 2015)

3.2 Six sigma

Itrefers to a production process that uses metrics to assess thedefects in the attributes of the chocolates, process flow or servicedelivery (Asq.org,2015).The number of defects is used to determine the quality performance,as more defects indicate quality issues with the production process.Some of the metrics used are Defects Per million Opportunities (DPMO)and RTY (Roller Throughput Yield). One of the tools that isappropriate here is the ‘Project Charter ‘which is used to definehow team work can be improved (Goetsch&amp‎ Davis, 2015).

The‘Value stream map’ is a framework that can be used to offer anoverview of the process.

‘Theprocess map’ is a tool that is used to record activities performedin relation to the improvement process. Moreover, the capabilityanalysis is a tool that is used to evaluate and measure capacity ofthe process to meet objectives (Asq.org,2015Goetsch&amp‎ Davis, 2015).

3.3 Lean process

Thisnew process is used to identify and eliminate ‘flab’ in anyprocess. The ‘flab’ is described as the dead weight in thecompany process which has no additive value(Asq.org,2015).Most processes are accompanied by wastefulness either in time ormaterials, which in turn lead to poor output. This processes servesto minimize the number of processes thus, limit chances for error. Inessence, this is amodel that ensuresthat companies adopt a continuouspathway of improvements (Goetsch&amp‎ Davis, 2015).

3.4 Lean six sigma

Thesetools are used to constructrobust process whose primary goal is toenable organizations attain standards that are exceptional and incontrol(Asq.org,2015).This approach is empirical in nature in that data has to be subjectedto various statistical techniques to understand both explicit andimplicit trends (Everton, Sergio, Edson, Rosa, 2014). Some of thetools include histograms, fishbone diagrams,time series andregression analysis.

4.0 Quality processesin Chocolate manufacturing4.1 Manufacturingstandards quality

Chocolateproduction is subject to basic hygiene and safety regulation butincorporates other internal mechanism to ensure quality due to thecomplexity of the process. Quality assurance mechanism should becomprehensive,continually updated and the communication channeleffective. The essence of this effort is to ensure that total qualityis influenced by problem solving,decision making and the involvementof all employees (Asq.org,2015).

4.2 Qualitycertification

zChocolatshould liaise with the relevant authorities in its various points ofoperation so as s to meet statutory quality thresholds. The means andprocess of production need to be evaluated and audited on regularperiods to ensure their effectiveness.

4.3 Hazard AnalysisCritical Control Points (HACCP)

Thisis a continual model where improvement of food safety initiatives isevaluated upon. The essence is to identify and act upon potentialhazards that may arise out of the many processes (Goetsch&amp DavisFerruccio,Duilio&ampSonia, 2015).

4.4 Allergenmanagement

Thisis a process that focuses on managing allergens that may exist withinraw materials. This initiative is reactive and it serves to minimizeor eliminate allergens. Another proactive effort would be to ensuresupplier approval where identification is made beforehand.

Illustration1: The production process that zChocolat can focus to ensure qualityassurances are as follows:

4.5 Benchmarking

Thisisa process that manufacturers use to compare costs, cycle time andproductivity or quality measures in different processes within theproductive line (Goetsch&ampDavis). This is a very critical evaluation framework because itenables the business determine its success rate regarding qualityobjectives. The number of defects per unit measure in a particularproduction processes is used as an indicator then compared to pastdefects that resulted from other production instances, sue ofbenchmarking data (Goetsch&ampDavis Katerina,2014).

4.6 Control charts

Thistool is to determine the stability of a given process. Practically,it is used to monitor Cost and schedule performance of a givenproduction processes. A control chart has both an upper limit and alower limit that is modeled from historical data or by what is knownas a 3-sigma control limit. If there are values that lie outside thelimits (lower or upper) then, the factor causing these effects mustbe investigated (Goetsch&ampDavis).

Thefollowing data was obtained from electronic questionnaires given outto various stakeholders where they were asked to rate (based on ascale of 10) their thoughts on performance of zChocolat regarding thefollowing elements of the TQM

Table1: Elements of TQM

















Figure1: Presentation of ratings by various stakeholders on performance ofZchocolat regarding the outlined elements of TQM in Table 1

Figure2: Score trend of the elements of the TQM

Figure.1and figure 2 indicate the score trend of the elements of the TQM. Thefigures indicate that the three elements: trust, training andteamwork are extremes as they lay outside the sigma control limits.zChocolat then has to focus on these three elements to determine whythey score relatively low.

4.7 Multivariatemodels

Thisis a tool that is appropriate in determining the root cause ofvarious occurrences. These technique randomly selected batchers,where both batches (independent variables) with or without qualityproblems had an equal chance of being selected. The process data isanalyzed using multivariate regression analysis to ascertain how suchdefective batches affect quality (dependent variable). In particular,the Principal Component Analysis helps determine how variousvariables contribute to the variation observed in the dependentvariable (quality). Variables with the biggest variation ought to beanalyzed further. For instance, one of the data captured fromzChocolat was as follows

Table2: Variables affecting Quality and Safety of Zchocolat products



Purity levels

Cocoa solids












Unsweetened chocolate



Table2 indicates the variables that affect the quality and safety of thechocolates produced by zChocolat. The regression that was conductedwas a multiple linear regression whose abstract details are beyondthe scope of this however. However, the regression equation is asfollows.

Y(Purity levels) = 17.93x1+ 3.5x2+1.01x3-4 x4+5.75x5

Theequation is used to test the purity of chocolate bars where if eachvariable does not feet with a given benchmarked data, then the testprocess is evaluated.

Itis clear from the above equation that the largest positivecontributor to the quality of chocolates is Cocoa solids. Thenegative sign in the ‘impurities’ variable indicates howimpurities negatively affect the quality of chocolate products. Basedon the Principal Component Analysis, it was established thatzChocolat chocolates have the best combination of ingredients toensure quality. However, the existence of the factor of impuritiescan be lower the quality of the products and action must be taken toremove such unwanted inputs.

5.0 Recommendations5.1 Need toimprove performance

Thebrief data discussed above show that there are areas where zChocolathas fared extremely well while in others the performance isinadequate. There are initiatives that zChocolat can implement tooversee the needed change.

5.2 Control plan

Thisfocuses on actions or activities that must be implemented to preserveimproved performance. In the case study of zChocolat, some TQMelements such as training and team working are outside thepre-determined range and actions must be taken to rectify thesituation. However, efforts that have enhanced elements such ascommunication must be kept as they are. Several underlying abstractdetails that are beyond the scope of this paper but the objective ofthe efforts are to improve performance (Goetsch&ampDavis).

5.3 Implement the5s

Thisis a framework that strives to ensure the morale of workers andensure that customer experience is the exemplary. The attitude wornby management concerning employees has also been factored in the 5smodel Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (Sian,2015).The benefits that zChocolat strives to reap from this model include:improved safety, lowers the number of produced defects, loweroperation costs, enhanced productivity, cultivates higher employeemorale and enhances healthier asset utilization.

5.4 Utilizemistake proofing

Chocolateproduction is a food item and its safety cannot be compromised. Inthis regard, all necessary efforts must be utilized to ensure thatminimal mistakes are committed. The ‘mistake proofing’ is aproactive approach which ensures that process used have a minimalchance of error occurring. Any step that is associated with apotential error is revised early in advance. It is known that errorsfollow probabilistic pattern, it is extremely difficult to determinethe actual step where the error may occur. The flow chart can beapplied to this effect as it enables each step to be reviewindependently(Sameer &amp Anthony, 2011).

6.0 Conclusion

zChocolathas provide us with proper platform to discuss an analyze the concept of quality assurances in food manufacturing and from a broadperspective, the entire process of manufacturing. Most manufacturingprocesses are complex and there is a high chance of errors occurringwhich can effectively lead to resource wastage, loss of time and inextreme cases, loss of lives. It is therefore incumbent thatfactories institute measures and mechanisms to minimize theoccurrence of error. There are various mechanisms that can beincorporated in the production process to ensure that qualityobjectives are met. Some of the techniques that have beendiscussed inthis paper include: sixsigma, Lean process and lean six sigma. More another technique thatorganizations such as zChocolat is the use of benchmarking modelswhere a certain process should produce results that are consistent toanother set of premeditated results and if it does not, the processshould be evaluate further. In addition, statistical concepts andflowcharts can also be used to determine the probability of a defectiveitem occurring in future and taking the necessary steps to correctit. As per the statistical data contained in the paper it wasestablished that the entire total quality measurements in zChocolatis not effective, there are various recommendations that have beenoffer to that effect which include: initiate a controlplan,implement the 5s and utilize mistake proofing.


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