Public Policy Formulation Lecturer

PublicPolicy Formulation

Lecturer

PublicPolicy Formulation

Eventhough people think they can earn a living from crime, it is notjustice to let others suffer because of it. While policiesare easily passed by legislature, the challenging part becomes theirsuccessful implementation since the importance of forming a publicpolicy is to curb crime which is a major obstacle to the growth ofthe society and economy at large. Because the effect of crime andcorruption is detrimental to any economy since it pushes investorsaway, lack of a strong public policy creates loopholes in theprosecution of criminal offenders and may cause them to gounpunished, and a poorly formulated or complete luck of a publicpolicy leads to such societal vices as corruption that deflects moneymeant for public benefit to the pockets of a few selfish individuals.

Effectsof crime to society

Bydefinition a crime is any action or omission that creates offense andis punishable by law example of a crime is stealing from someone etc.Crime has been there since the colonization of America and up totoday we still have crime affecting our societies. The crime rateaccording to statistics done by research organizations show thatsince colonization crime has not been increasing and neither has itbeen decreasing year by year. This means that there are times thecrime rate was very high compared to other times. For example,compare the rate of crime from 1970s to 1990s and now, from thestatistics taken, it shows that crime was high then as compared tonow showing that crime rate is not predictable and is highly prone toconstant seasonal variations.

Theeffects of crime are both direct and indirect and may be long term orshort term depending on the type of crime committed. Crime may leadto loss of life, property, income or even medical costs. One majorconcern of crime is the fact that no matter the type of crime thathas been committed, it will affect us either financially and/orpsychologically.

Publicpolicy to address crime

Policyimplies to the laws, regulations, courses of action and funding givento tackle the issue. The issue of crime in any society can be tackledusing public policy. The public policy life cycle has four mainphases that include:

i)Agenda Setting

Innumerous cities and estates, crime has been on the rise at analarming rate leading to loss of property, high insecurity, physicalinjuries, and sometimes loss of life. The main crime offenders asnoted from observations and investigations, point out to the youthsas being the main culprits. The types of crime committed ranges fromshoplifting, theft, carjacking and robbery with violence to mentionbut a few. It has been a big process for the concerned law enforcersto try to curb the high rate of crime. This is because the majorityof the criminals have connections to people who have authority in thegovernment therefore, deeming it a challenge for authorities totackle the crime issue. The causes of crime in the community arenumerous and may range from poverty, to peer pressure, to idleness,or drugs. Surprisingly, majority of the criminals apprehended by theauthorities are youths who either didn`t attend school, or declinedto finish school. It poses a challenge for high school drop outs tosecure well paying jobs that can cater for the basic needs, as wellas their youthful urge to engage in fun activities such as partying.

Useof Drugs is a factor that contributes to high crime rate since amajority of the drug users are jobless, and rarely have a means oflivelihood hence they are forced to engage in such criminalactivities as theft in order to sustain their expensive habits. Peerpressure is another factor that it was deemed as being a cause ofincreased crime rate in the community. Peer pressure mainly affectsthe youths who with their shallow mindedness tend to think that beinginvolved in crime is a trendy thing that earns one recognition andrespect among their peers. The fact that they are being involved incrime and the authorities are not able to apprehend them because oflack of substantial evidence makes them believe that they are abovethe law. The feeling that one is above the law interests otheryouths, therefore other youths will want to join crime. The youthstend to believe that getting quick money (money gotten from stealing)is an easier way out of poverty than actually working for it.

Thehigh level of crime in the society is also attributable to thepainstaking corruption in government. There are cases that one or twoofficials in government especially law enforcers or in some casesprominent politicians who after being caught engaging in criminalactivities such as drug trafficking, are later released on a verypetty bond or in worst case scenarios even walk free. Nowadays, mostof the public figures only seek the public positions so as to deflectthe attention of law enforcement authorities away from themselves sothat they can smoothly operate their illegal drug businesses, or usetheir positions to seek immunity in case they are caught and blame iton political character assassination and witch hunt.

Inother cases, poverty may be the main motivation towards crime. One ofthe examples might be a person who has a family and doesn’t havethe means to feed his family, therefore, the person might decide tosteal or shoplift so as to cater for the family. Crime is a generalissue affecting many societies all over the world and if not takencare of we might go back to the barbaric times whereby there was norule of law. It is important to raise the awareness that crime is anissue that should be tackled by enforcing harsh punitive laws againstcrime offenders.

Oneof the ways to tackle crime is through education. If we raise theawareness of the importance of education there will be a tremendouschange among the youth across different societies. Every child mustbe able to at least study up to high school level. To enforce this,it takes the effort parents, school administrators and the governmentat large to ensure that every child attends school right from theelementary level. Most countries nowadays have implemented freeeducation policies thereby immensely reducing the number of childrenand youths in the streets. Make a rule that taking a child iscompulsory for every parent or guardian failure to do so will havelegal repercussions on the parent or guardian.

Povertyis another problem that leads to the crime but can be controlled ifgovernment can give subsidies to families that are not able to feedthemselves. Another form to curve out poverty would be to givetechnical jobs to the able members of the affected families, moreemphasis should be placed on more technical courses that require lessin terms of intellectual abilities but just require gifts, talents,and continuous practice. Government should build more tertiary andtechnical institutions that develop people for blue collar jobs suchas mechanics, plumbers, welders, carpenters, masons, and the likeswho can easily start their own businesses rather than depending onbeing employed as is the case with white collar professions where therate of unemployment is already alarmingly high. Youth should beencouraged and facilitated to engage in co-curricular activities suchas debates, comedy, and sports. It is not only education that willmake the youth be productive and attain a sense of self fulfillment,although one can also succeed with co-curricular activities. Nowadaysthere are numerous schools willing to give full scholarships tostudents who are exemplary in sports.

Todeal with the corrupt government officials we need to set up acommission that will investigate these corrupt officials in thegovernment (Gaubatz, et al. 1995). The Commission must work with thepolice such that if one is found to be corrupt one he/she will bearrested and taken to court. This commission will also investigateofficers who are involved in criminal activities, especially thosepoliticians responsible for the selling of drugs to the youths in thesociety. More corruption sensitization activities such as seminars,workshops, and rallies have to be undertaken at the grassroots levelto clearly taint it as a societal vice that is extremely prohibitedand cannot be condoned in any sector of the economy. Stringentlegislations should be passed by the parliament with very strongpunitive measures against people who engage in such vices ascorruption or any other criminal activities such as selling of drugs.

ii)Formulation and Adoption

Thereare policies that can be created so that the above solutions can beimplemented. The first policy would be to create a commission. Thework of this policy would be to investigate the corrupt officials inthe government. The commission is supposed to work closely with thelaw enforcers we have, if they find substantial proof that one iscorrupt they should alert the law enforcers and arrest. Thecommission should also be giving detailed reports on theirinvestigations every month so as to ensure integrity.

Theintroduction of subsidies to be given to families that cannot afforda basic meal. The criteria for choosing these families should bebased on families that the bread winner is unable to work and doesn’thave a pension plan (Greene, et al. 1977). This policy will make mostfamily members not to be involved in crime or crime relatedactivities. Build more technical schools for the students who areunable to join colleges. These technical schools should be free thestate government should allocate finances for the day to day runningof the schools. In the coming financial year, the costs of developingtechnical schools should be included in the Annual National Budget.

Creationof technical jobs should be enforced to reduce the number ofunemployed citizens in the community. The technical jobs mightinclude jobs like being a driver, janitor, security officer, plumber,mason, carpenter, mechanic, etc. This will reduce the unemploymentrate in the society at large and improve the national economy. Thelaw makers should also encourage schools to give scholarships tostudents who are good in any co-curricular activities. This in turnwill make students motivated to attend school. Harsh laws should alsobe enacted especially targeting those prominent people who areinvolved in drug trafficking (Hummelsheim, et al. 2010). If one iscaught with drugs, one should not be released on bail. Use of drugsis the main cause of high rate of crime globally. Therefore, I see itfit that harsh laws should be put against selling or using drugs

iii)Implementation

Inthis phase, it is expected that the necessary policies will be givento the necessary agencies so that they can be implementedaccordingly. For example, the commission will be created by the lawenforcers, the commission will be independent but will closely workwith the law enforcers. The state budget committee will beresponsible for allocation of funds when it comes to building of thetechnical schools and giving out the subsidies to the families thatare not able to cater for themselves (Avi-Itzhak, et.al. 1973). Thestate budget committee will also ensure that education is free bypaying the necessary fees for all the students. Education should befree because knowledge is power. The laws against drugs will beimplemented, and the judicial, and the law enforcers are expected toapply the new rules. The creation of jobs will be done by the officeof the mayor the office might create jobs around the community be itcleaning the streets, community counsellors/activists, among others.The office of the mayor might also make laws that will restrictindividuals from working more than a particular number of hours. Thiswill make companies hire more workers to maintain productivity.(Hummelsheim et al. 2010). The law enforcers will be tasked withensuring that all children go to school this will be done byremoving the idle youths on the streets. If it is the fault of theparent that the child has not gone to school, the parent should bearrested and taken to court.

iv)Evaluation

Thelast phase involves when the policies have been implemented, andthere must be results after evaluation of the implementation of thepolicies. After a period when all policies will have been enacteddrastic changes should be eminent (Gaubatz et.al., 1995). The crimerate will have reduced, and a majority of the citizens will havejobs. The youths will become better individuals who will be focusedon building the community to better standards. The expenditure usedto implement all the policies will be worth spending because themoney spent will be returned by investments made by employing peopleand building the economy.

Conclusion

Itcan be therefore be concluded that setting up of policies is a veryimportant aspect in trying to tackle an issue that is affecting thecommunity. Coming up with policies and implementing them is not aneasy task because it takes a great deal of effort from a lot ofpeople. For policies to be implemented finances are vital, otherwisenothing can be achievable. It is also noted that crime is an issuethat is affecting almost all communities it derails the developmentof the economy community wise. Theimportance of forming a public policy is to curb crime which is amajor obstacle to the growth of the society and economy at large.Since the effect of crime and corruption is detrimental to anyeconomy especially because it pushes investors away, lack of a strongpublic policy creates loopholes in the prosecution of criminaloffenders and may cause them to go unpunished. A poorly formulated orcomplete luck of a public policy leads to such societal vices ascorruption that deflects money meant for public benefit to thepockets of a few selfish individuals.

Reference

Avi-Itzhak,B., &amp Shinnar, R. (1973). Quantitative models in crime control.Journal of Criminal Justice, 1(3), 185-217.

Gaubatz,K. T. (1995). Crime in the public mind (pp. 5-8). Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press.

Greene,M. A. (1977). The incapacitative effect of imprisonment policies oncrime (Doctoral dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University).

Hummelsheim,D., Hirtenlehner, H., Jackson, J., &ampOberwittler, D. (2010).Social insecurities and fear of crime: A cross-national study on theimpact of welfare state policies on crime-related anxieties. Europeansociological review, jcq010.

Sansfacon,D., Waller, I., &amp Welsh, B. (1999). Crime prevention digest II:Comparative analysis of successful community safety. Montreal:International Centre for the Prevention of Crime.