Psychological and Physiological Behavioural Needs

HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY 5

Psychologicaland Physiological Behavioural Needs

Psychologicaland Physiological Behavioural Needs

Thepersonality disorder that Patrick might have been thought to have inhis earlier years (according to the DSM-5) and supportive reasons

TheDiagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders thatPatrick experienced at his tender age varies. The DSM-5 developmentbegins with the developmental processes and ends with neurocognitivedisorders, which are noticeable in later life. Patrick sufferedcognition personality disorder at his early age. The example of thedisorder is evident based on the ways he used to perceive andinterpret himself as well as imitating his parents. However, theDSM-5 gives an elaborate description of personality disorders inclusters. As illustrated in group C part of the personal disorder, itis true that Patrick was fearful and avoidant. Regarding his father’sbehaviours, he was afraid to have fallen part of the war victim thusavoided personal contact with other fellow friends. Patrick alsopossessed narcissistic personal disorder at his childhood. Hisambitions were full of fantasies and believed he would perform betteras his father did. Nevertheless, he never reflected the realcharacters the father possessed through the academic ladder as wellas popularity due to poor performance when joining college.

Theratings and reasons of Patrick behaviours on each of the Big 5 traits

Withinthe research findings done by Costa and McCrae, there are five keyfactors established through incorporating assessment techniques,which include observers report, self-rating as well as object tests.Regarding Patrick’s life from tender age to adulthood, he wouldrate on the Big Five theory as follows

Factor

Description

Rate Out of 10

1

Neuroticism

Worried, insecure, nervous, highly strung

8 – Often, Patrick felt insecure, worried and nervous based on his father’s characters. In fact, he felt the father would act widely on him as he did to other family members.

2

Extraversion

Sociable, talkative, fun-loving, affectionate

9 – He was sociable to everyone both in school and at home.

3

Openness

Original, independent, creative, daring

6 – Most of his behaviours were full of imitation.

4

Agreeableness

Good-natured, softhearted, trusting, courteous

7 – Despite the fact Patrick felt insecure in their house, the parents natured him to live as a role model to others in the society.

5

Conscientiousness

Careful, reliable, hardworking, organized

7 – He was above average as he could sell bakery products to other student and still manage academic goals in life.

Examplesof Carl Rogers` conditions of worth, in this case, study aboutPatrick’s life

Rogershas a perception that individuals are motivated in a ladder form frombirth to a point he or she enhance self. The driving force is toattain self-actualization that covers psychological and physiologicalneeds as illustrated in Maslow’s hierarchy of requirements thatstarts with the fundamental requirements to the point ofself-actualization that provide sustenance or part for survival.Rogers evaluates all of his life experiences based on how well theyserve the actualization tendency. Rogers become prosperous throughstrict teachings he received from the parents as well as hisvoracious reading that tamed his childhood and adulthood life.

Rogersis excelling in both aspects of life through the development of self.His conditions suit that of Patrick since through the experiences hegot from his close family members and others by experiments he putsmuch focus to excel academically. Patrick is facing differentchallenges in life from his childhood though he builds positiveperception towards performing better in academic and excelling inlife. Even though he backslide at some point in life by being a drugaddict and having imbalances on his co-curriculum and scholars, heeventually reached self-actualization by completing college life andgetting his dream job.

Findexamples of Skinner`s radical behaviourism in the case study. How didreinforcement or punishment influence Patrick`s behaviour? Specifythe reinforcers and punishments.

Skinnerascertains that individuals’ life that is outside the psychology israrely reinforced. Indeed, the variable ratio schedule reinforcementdepends wholly on the average number of responses got from thereinforcers though there is significant variability in the average.The best example to employ is gambling. It is also evident thatPatrick gambled with life and finally endured response behavioursthat limit activeness. Patrick strived towards living a better lifelike just like his father lived. The challenges he faced through hisschooling shaped his path towards working extra harder for him toexcel.

Patrick`sbehaviour according to Bandura`s Social Cognitive Learning Theoryregarding modeling and self-efficacy

Banduraconfirms that in most cases, human beings learn most of thebehaviours through examples either intentionally or accidentally. TheBandura’s modelling concept by observational learning states thatpeople learn diversified behaviors in our daily lives throughobservations of what other people do and imitate their behavioursthat match the personal character. Patrick’s life is full ofchallenges but he finds hope for his future through various scenes heobserved that later changed his character in entire life throughschooling to work environment. Patrick in his childhood was full ofrecognizable characters that he imitated from his parents as well asthrough life experiences. His father participated in co-curriculumactivities such as boxing, playing golf and taking part in athletes,which he observed at his tender age. There are certain concepts ofsocial cognitive theory (SCLT) which apply to Patrick’s life suchas reinforcement as well as self-efficacy. Reinforcement forms thecrucial part that is essential for learning purposes, and it proceedsfrom behaviours. Often, it increases an individual’s acquisition ofnew responses. The observable reinforcements are not all necessaryfor new learning though may anticipate on the reinforcement ofcertain behaviours to imitate.

Patrick’sdad also became prominent in the society based on his careerdevelopment he obtained as a lawyer. The father’s behaviours were aliving testimony to Patrick since he worked harder in achieving hiscareer path by observing the reactions his father possessed. Patrickalso imitated his father’s character by engaging into the drug,which led to his failure to the courses he took in the first year.Patrick also engaged in self-reinforcement where he set personalstandards of achievements his father had as well as some of hisbehaviours and rewarded himself through reinforcers or emotionalties. It is evident that based on his continuous performance, hemanaged to get a chance in college. Consequently, through the shamePatrick got from his girlfriend regarding his poor performance, helearnt to work extra hard to excel in the academics. At a certainpoint in life, Patrick had low self-efficacy and felt helpless withlife especially when his academic performance dropped drastically. Henever gave up working harder towards achieving his desired goals butrather gained high self-efficacy and started finding better solutionsto his problems.