Professor’s Abstract




Thereare eight species and three genotypes composed of the genusTrichinella. They all have the potential to infect the host such asbirds, mammals and reptiles this depends on the pathogenic features.Biological testing is important to distinguish the species due tohighly similar morphological characteristics. The species aretherefore classified into two clades, and this usually depends on thepresence or even the absence of a collagen capsule that surrounds thehost striated muscle during the period of infection. The first cladeis the Trichinellaspiralis,which presents the collagen capsule. It is in the year 2004 thatTrichinellaspiraliswas selected for full genetic sequencing. The purpose of the analysiswas to understand the link that existed between the nematode andanother organism under the kingdom Animalia.As a result, there was trichinellaspiralisin some facets that was more genetically similar to othermulticellular organisms within in the animal kingdom that it was tonematodes (Bruschi 2014).

Trichinellaspiralisis the smallest and present nematode pathogenic to humans. Theparasite causes systematic trichinosis, this is a gastrointestinaldisease that is usually spread when raw meat is consumed, and it ismore specifically from the pork. Various symptoms that victims mayexperience which includes pain, swelling, and pain among others arediscussed in the report (Bruschi 2014).

Trichinellaspiralisis known to be the smallest nematode parasite of the human. Thenematode has a cuticle with three or even more outer layers made ofcollagen together with other compounds. The role of the cuticle layeris to guard the nematode so that they can quickly invade the animal’sdigestive tracts. The parasite has the male species, which is about1.4 to 1.6 millimeter while the female species is twice the length.The females have a uterus, which is contained in the back portion andfilled with eggs that are developing, on the other hand, the fore endhas hatching juveniles. The body of the worm is slender at theanterior than the back. Additionally the nematodes have longitudinalmuscles arranged in bands, which is along the body wall. The mainbody has dorsal, longitudinal and ventral nerve cords, connected tothe muscle. Other physical features present are the exothermic,heterothermic and bilateral symmetry (Richardson and Krause 2003).

Thelife cycle of Trichinellaspiralisbegins immediately after ingestion of the early stage juvenileusually from the intermediate host. The duration within which thenematode molts is the first thirty hours after that they mate. Thelarva then exits through the wall of the gut where it enters theblood system through the lymphatic system of the hepatic portal vein. They larvae usually takes residence in voluntary muscles after theirtransportation through the blood stream, they enter the individualtissues cells. Within the muscles the larvae grow and a covering iscreated around them, which causes a cyst when the latter is from thelarvae cannot migrate any further. For this reason, the life cycle ofthe worm only continues when the species is to be ingested by anotherhost, achieved in the presence of a predator-prey interaction.Therefore, when the new host eats the muscles tissue containing thecyst the digestive juices present in the gut breaks down the capsuleand hence the worm is released (Richardson and Krause 2003).

Trichinellaspiralishas exceedingly broad host range, from people to almost any speciesof mammal, get affected by the worm. The entry point of the worm inthe human being is during consumption of pork that is not cookedthoroughly. The worms mainly the adults live in the columnarepithelial surrounding cells of the small intestines while the larvaelive in striated muscle cell within a human being or the mammal (Lamb2012).

Thereare three different ecological types of the life cycle they includethe sylvatic cycle, the urban cycle and lastly the marine cycle. Themammals involved in the urban cycle include the rats and the pigs,which serve as the hosts and reservoirs of the parasite. The sylvaticcycle includes the scavengers while the marine cycles are the whales,seals, walruses, and the polar bears (Lamb 2012).

Humandue to the disease it causes knows the parasite the condition isknown as trichinosis or trichinellosis. The only in which human beingcan get the disease is by eating meat that is infected. Undercookedpork or raw sausage, which is a delicacy to many individuals maketrichinosis a chronic health issue The following are the symptoms ofthe disease weakness and tissue or muscular convulsing, which comewhen the female deposits the juvenile in the tissue. Secondly is theintense muscle pain, difficulty with respiration, edema around theeyes, persistent fever brought about by the worm’s larvae as theymove or migrate in the tissue muscle. The face also becomes puffythere is damage to the nervous system, the heart and other organs ofthe body, swelling, and pneumonia, which are symptoms that occur withthe encysting of the worm around the tissues of the muscles (Lamb2012, Thrasher 2006).

Thediagnosis of the parasite is usually difficult as soon as one isinfected since there is some secretion of enzymes are that quitesimilar for example, the lactase dehydrogenase this can bring upother types of infection. The enzymes could indicate the presence ofother parasitic infection hence making it difficult to treattrichinosis. The test done include a use of immunofluorescence andlatex aggulation to detect antibodies developed by the parasite. Themost useful test is biopsy in the diagnosis of trichinosis the testcan also indicate the severity and stage of the disease. Additionallydeltoid is used in testing the Trichinellaspiralislarva formation (Bruschi 2014).

Medicalintervention is required depending on the seriousness of theinfection. The range in which treatment is administered may bemoderate to severe disease. The primary goals of treatment are toprevent the spread, which may lead to systematic infection. Thepatients are therefore given mebendazole or albendazole, which is anantiparasitic medication.Pain relievers are also used for soremuscles and antipyretics to offset fever. The history of Trichinellaspiralisinfections date back from 1500 B.C they are one of the recognizedparasites of the human. The life cycle of Trichinellaspiralishas been known since the 1850s their infection is more dangerous andsevere (Bruschi 2014, Richardson and Krause 2003).

Thefocus for patient with Trichinellaspiralisin to eliminate the species from the food chain. Trichinellaspiralisare known to be the causative agent of human trichinellosis. Thedisease is not only hazardous to human health but also an economicproblem. Symptoms for the patient with trichinellosis are abdominaldiscomfort, cramping, facial swelling, muscle weakness, fever andmuscle pain. Test for diagnosis is complete blood count, eosinophilcount, muscle biopsy and serology. Treatment involves the use ofmedicine such as mebendazole to treat infections in the intestines.However, the patient had not sought treatment since some symptomsappear like that of the flu. There may results that are threateninglike myocarditis, encephalitis or bronchopneumonia (Spiegel and Kenny2013).


Bruschi,F. (2014). Helminthinfections and their impact on global public health.

Lamb,T. (2012). Immunityto parasitic infections.Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Richardson,D. J., &amp Krause, P. J. (2003). NorthAmerican Parasitic Zoonoses.Boston, MA: Springer US.

Thrasher,S. M. (2006). Therole of mast cells in rapid expulsion of Trichinella Spiralis in therat.