Professional Engineer Section A

14

ProfessionalEngineer

SectionA

Parta: Fundamental Principles

Professionalengineers and technicians are guided by four fundamental principlesthat help them in attaining high ideals of professionalism. Thesefour principles are as discussed in the following paragraphs

Accuracyand Rigour: professional engineers as well as technicians have a dutyof ensuring that they acquire and apply intelligently and faithfullythe knowledge which is relevant to the engineering skills required intheir work in serving others (Bowen,2014 pp.54).They should show care and competence, carry out services in thoseareas that they have current competence, help in the development ofengineering skills and knowledge in others, not mislead othersconcerning engineering matters, and present and re-evaluateengineering evidence and theory accurately, honestly and without anybias.

Honestyand Integrity: according to this principle, professional engineers aswell as technicians are supposed to adopt the highest standards ofprofessionalism, openness, honesty and fairness. It is important forthem to respect the rights and fame of other parties, shun deceptiveacts and take steps in preventing corrupt conduct, refuse bribery orinappropriate influence, and act for every employer in a trustworthyand reliable manner (Bowen,2014 pp.54).

Respectfor Life, Law and the Public Good: this principle argues thatengineers and technicians must give appropriate weight to allrelevant facts, law and published guidance, and the broader publicinterest. They need to ensure that all the work that they handle islawful and justified. Engineers and technicians should also minimizeand justify any negative impact on society or natural environment fortheir own sake as well as that of the future generations. Besides, itis important for engineers and technicians to consider takingreasonable account of the scarce natural and human resources, andhold majorly the health and safety of other people. Furthermore,engineers are supposed to act in honourable, responsible, and lawfulmanner and ensure that they uphold the dignity, reputation andstanding of the engineering profession.

ResponsibleLeadership: according to this principle, technicians and engineersmust aspire to high measures of leadership in the application andmanagement of technology. Because they hold a privileged and trustedrank in society, they are expected to show that they seek to servethe society at large and are sensitive to public concerns (Bowen,2014 pp. 56).Technicians and engineers are supposed to show an understanding ofthe issues that engineering and technology bring to the society, andshould listen to the concerns and aspirations of others. Also,technicians and engineers must be objective as well as truthful inany statement they make in their professional capacity. Furthermore,they need to actively enhance public awareness and understanding ofthe effects and benefits of engineering accomplishments.

Partb: Engineering Failures

Ethicsin engineering are very important and help in the prevention ofengineering accidents. Deficiency in engineering ethics has beendeemed as one of the chief causes of engineering failure. As aprofessional, an engineer has a responsibility to the engineeringprofession, employer or client, and to the general public. In thepast, failure of following engineering ethics led to engineeringaccidents. The following paragraphs discuss real incidents thatoccurred in the past due to failure of engineering ethics, and willexplain placed on the modern day professional engineer.

Oneof the cases in the past that occurred as a result of not followingengineering ethics is that of the Titanic tragedy. The steel used inthe building of the RMS Titanic was likely the best carbon ship platethat was available during the period of the construction of the RMSTitanic. However, this steel used during the time cannot be allowedto be used at the modern time for the purpose of constructionespecially in the case of ships. During the Titanic accident, therewere no navigation aids that could have assisted in the sighting oficebergs at a greater distance. Nevertheless, the modern professionalengineer is guided by ethical principle of safety, whereby theengineer puts the safety of the client or public first. Thus, in themodern times, a professional engineer would put the safety of thepublic at the centre and consider using navigation aids in sightingan iceberg that is approaching, which would allow more time for anevasive action.

Anotherpast incident that has been deemed to emanate from engineeringfailure was the collapse of the Angers Bridge. The collapse of thisbridge was due to the dynamic load as a result of the soldiers andthe storm. Also, the cable anchorages at the bridge were indicated tobe highly vulnerable since they were encircled by cement that wasdeemed to rustproof them for a long time. Nevertheless, the wirestrands were separated from the cement surrounds, which permitted thepenetration of water and corrosion of the wires. In the modern times,professional engineers are guided by ethics and carry out theirduties in their area of competence. In order to ensure thatsuspension bridges do not collapse, professional engineers ensurethat they use reinforced decks in dealing with the anchorage problemof suspension bridges.

Inaddition, another engineering failure that has occurred in the pastis the collapse of the Skyline Towers. This building collapsed whenshoring was being got rid of from newly poured concrete amid the 22ndand 23rdfloors, while more concrete was being put on the 24thfloor of the building. Upon investigations after the collapse of thebuilding, it was established that the collapse was as a result ofpremature getting rid of shoring from below newly poured floors.According to the modern time professional engineering ethics, it isimportant for an engineer to act to the clients as faithful agents.This implies that a professional engineer should ensure qualityservices to the clients. In the case of this building, quality of theservice provided to the owner of the building was undermined.

Partc: Rich Picture

Arich picture demonstrates the primary stakeholders, how they areinterrelated, and the concerns that they have (Gunn&amp Durkin, 2010 pp.68).There is no single way that can be considered the best for producinga rich picture. A rich picture has three chief components whichinclude the structure, process, and concerns. Structure describes theaspects of the work context which are slow to change. These mayinclude things such geographical localities, organizational hierarchyof an organization, and physical equipment amongst others. Thestructure should include all the individuals who will use or can beconceivably be affected by the introduction of a new system.Alternatively, process describes the transformations which take placeduring the process of the work. The transformations may be part of aflow of documents, goods, or even data. Concern describes the issuesand captures the idea of a given individual’s motivation in usingthe system. It is the motivations that result in the perspectivesthat every person in the system has.

Drawinga rich picture requires an analyst to work very closely with thedifferent stakeholders so as to make the pictures capture thesituation and associated concerns from the point of view of thestakeholders. Stakeholders engage in the process through working withan analyst in identifying structures, processes, as well as concernsthat are significant to them (Gunn&amp Durkin, 2010 pp.72).Rich pictures may be used to record, communicate, reason about, andnegotiate important issues as they emerge during or after theparticipatory design. Basically, the role of a rich picture is makingclear the stakeholders, their concerns, and their interrelationships(Gunn&amp Durkin, 2010 pp.70).This may be done at two levels a rich picture can be drawn such thatit identifies stakeholders as well as the work setting. Also, a richpicture may indicate a participatory design team.

Acase where rich pictures may be applied by a professional engineer isthe indication of the flow of influence for instance, a case where aprofessional engineer may want to indicate how professional webdesigners influence a company through standards and expectations.Such a rich picture is illustrated below

SectionB

Parta: Sustainable Development

Theconception of sustainable development surfaced in the background of agrowing awareness of an impending ecological crisis, can be perceivedas one of the driving forces of the global history in the periodtowards the end of the 20thcentury. Nevertheless, as a modern-day catchphrase, sustainabledevelopment has become overworked. The phrase is commonly usedwithout a concern of its real implications. The term sustainabilitywas used for the first time in German forestry circles sustainableuse of forest resources meant the maintenance of a balance betweenharvesting of old trees and ensuring that young trees to replace themwere sufficient (Jacobus, 2006 pp.83). On the other hand, sustainabledesign describes the creation of buildings that are healthy, energyefficient, flexible in use, comfortable and designed for long life.

Sustainabledevelopment concerns the process of ensuring that human activitiesare moved to a pattern which can be in a position to be sustained inperpetuity. Sustainability is an approach to environmental as well asdevelopmental issues which seeks to settle human needs with theability of the planet to cope with the outcomes of human activities.There are three chief constraints that constitute sustainability,which include eco-centric concerns, socio-centric concerns, andtechno-centric concerns (Jacobus, 2006 pp.87). Techno-centricconcerns comprise of techno-economic systems and represent humanskills and ingenuity the skills which engineers should continuedeploying, and the economic system within which engineers deploythem. Socio-centric concerns embody human expectations as well asaspirations the needs of humans to live valuable lives now and inthe future. Alternatively, eco-centric concerns embody the capacityof the planet to sustain individuals through providing energy andmaterial resources, and through accommodating individuals and theiremissions as well as wastes. When all the three constraints aresatisfied, sustainability is attained.

Dimensionsof Sustainability

Sustainabilityimplies living within all the three kinds of long-term constraints:technology should not be organized as though it has no environmentalor societal impacts. Therefore, engineers should become chief playersin sustainable development and should have a duty as citizens not toconduct themselves as just isolated technical experts. Attainingsustainability through sustainable development requires someimportant shifts in behavior as well as consumption patterns.Engineers should be in the forefront of leading the processes ofmaking decisions concerning the use of energy, material and waterresources, the design of new products, and the development ofinfrastructure among other things.

Partb: Life Cycle Assessment

LifeCycle Assessment (LCA) describes a process of evaluating theenvironmental burdens which are associated with a product, activity,or process through identifying as well as quantifying materials andenergy used and the wastes that would be released to the environment(Curran, 2012 pp.61). In assessing the impact of the materials andenergy used on to the environment life cycle assessment is required.The sole purpose of life cycle assessment is identifying andevaluating opportunities that’s would result in the improvement ofthe environment (Curran, 2012 pp.65). This assessment entails theentire life cycle of a product, activity, or process, including theextraction and processing of raw materials transportation anddistribution, maintenance, manufacturing, recycling as well as finaldisposal.

Thedesign of a certain product may be represented logically as a chainof decisions and choices reached by the different individualparticipants involved in the process. The choices vary from theselection of materials and manufacturing activities to choices inselecting the form, shape and role of the product. Every decisionreached by the team members in the development and implementation ofthe design process shapes the entire environmental impact of theproduct system. Life cycle assessment has emerged as the mostall-inclusive analytical tool that can be utilized in evaluating theenvironmental report of a product (Curran, 2012 pp.79). Components oflife cycle assessment, which include impact assessment, inventoryanalysis, and improvement assessments, are usually applied as toolsfor environmental assessment and management. The integration of lifecycle assessment in product design is therefore of immense importancebecause it helps in identifying, evaluating, and mitigating thenegative environmental impacts associated with the design of aproduct. Failure of integrating life cycle assessment in product mayend up bringing adverse impacts on the environment thus affectingsustainability.

Partc: Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporatesocial responsibility (CSR) describes a corporate self-regulationthat is incorporated in a business. A CSR policy acts as a mechanismthat a business uses in monitoring and ensuring its compliance withthe ethical standards, international or national norms, and spirit ofthe land (Lee &amp Kotler, 2013 pp.84). Two international companiesthat have corporate social responsibility policy are Microsoft andApple Companies.

TheMicrosoft’s corporate social responsibility policy, the companyfosters organizational, community, and individual empowerment throughenvironmental sustainability, human rights, responsible sourcing,global diversity and inclusion, and accessibility. Microsoft workswith customers, governments, partners, and environmentalorganizations in bringing the power of information technology as wellas cloud computing in addressing the global environmental challenges.The company uses different initiatives in protecting the naturalresources such as developing safe and sustainable products, reducingand disposing of waste, and conserving, recycling and re-usingresources. Microsoft strives in creating an environment that aid theorganization in capitalizing on diversity of individuals and theinclusion of ideas as well as solutions in meeting the needs of theincreasing global diversity. Also, the company also respects humanrights and has an aim of bringing the power of technology inpromoting respect for human rights globally.

Alternatively,the Apple Company fosters different activities that are in line withits corporate social responsibility policy. The company offerseducation and development of its employees free for charge, where280,000 employees have been involved in varied courses. The companyhas respect for human rights since it enforces the Supplier Code ofConduct. Also, the Apple Company minds about the health and safety ofits employees through its health and safety program. In addition, thecompany takes part in environment sustainability the companyproduces products that decrease the energy consumption. The companyhas also been involved in launching of clean water program, which ispart of the corporate social responsibility policy.

Thecorporate social responsibility policies used by the Microsoft andApple Companies compare in that they both take into considerationenvironmental concerns. In both policies, the companies take measuresthat ensure that the products that they produce conserve energy.Also, the corporate social responsibilities of the two companiesensure the sustainability of resources through consideringenvironmental and resource-friendly initiatives. Furthermore, thecorporate social responsibility policies of the two companies have apositive impact to the community since they focus on good thingstowards the community.

Partd: UK Bribery Act

ThisAct provides details concerning the general offences relating tobeing bribed or bribing another individual and a specific offencethat relates to the bribing of foreign public officials. The Act alsointroduces a corporate offense where a corporate fails to preventbribery. This offense is usually designed in making companies as wellas other corporate entities responsible for failing to avoid briberythat is committed on their behalf by the agents, employees, orsubsidiaries. According to the Act, bribing ad being bribedconstitutes the intention of bringing about an improper performancewhich is the key to the offence. Improper performance, according tothe Act, is one in which there is a violation of a position of trustor an expectation of impartiality (Kochan &amp Goodyear, 2011pp.103). The Act provides that the courts of UK have power overbribery outside the United Kingdom where the individual that commitsthe offence is a British citizen or is a resident in the UnitedKingdom, an entity incorporated in the United Kingdom, or is aScottish partnership. Any entity carrying out its business in theUnited Kingdom will be subject to the failure of preventing a briberyoffence relating to conduct happening outside of the United Kingdom(Kochan &amp Goodyear, 2011 pp.98).

TheUK Bribery Act will have different implications on a company. Inspite of a company not being situated in the United Kingdom, but havepart of its operations in the UK, the company will need to know theprovisions of the Act because the courts in the UK will havejurisdiction powers over cases of bribery (Kochan &amp Goodyear,2011 pp.86). The company will not need to be UK-based, but it will bean offence conducting in a manner that suggests receiving bribery orbribing another party, even if it is outside the UK. This Act willhave an implication on a company because a company will be requiredto introduce an anti-bribery policy as well as procedures that wouldeffectively fight any bribery cases. In case the company has alreadyput in place an anti-bribery policy and procedures, it will need toreview the policy and procedures to ensure that they are effective ineliminating bribery cases.

References

Bowen,W. R. (2014). EngineeringEthics: Challenges and opportunities.Cham: Springer.

Curran,M. A. (2012). Lifecycle assessment handbook: A guide for environmentally sustainableproducts.Hoboken, N.J: Scrivener/Wiley.

Gunn,R., &amp Durkin, C. (2010). Socialentrepreneurship: A skills approach.Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

Hopkins,M. (2007). Corporatesocial responsibility and international development: Is business thesolution?London: Earthscan.

Jacobus,A. D.P. (2006). Sustainable development–historical roots of theconcept. EnvironmentalSciences,3:2, 83-96.

Kochan,N., &amp Goodyear, R. (2011). Corruption:The new corporate challenge.Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hamshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lee,N., &amp Kotler, P. (2013). Corporatesocial responsibility: Doing the most good for your company and yourcause.Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.