ORAL DEFENSE QUESTIONS

Integrative Industry Project

Task Five Instructions and Guidelines for Students

ORALDEFENSE QUESTIONS

OralDefence Guidelines

Generalareas of questioning could include but not limited to:

GeneralResearch

  1. What are the limitations of your study and how would you have done things differently if time were not an issue?

Therewere a few problems that I encountered while conducting my researchalthough it was successful and no parts were left and, therefore,this study is not biased at all [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].Some of the difficulties include the challenge of being able tocombine all my lectures to develop my project exclusively. Anotherlimitation is the lack of enough time that made it hard to readintensively and extensively to develop my research study [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].Given a chance I would have made proper early preparations by makinga good file of combined lectures that will help me in developing myresearch study.

  1. What did you learn about doing this research?

Whileconducting this research study I learnt many things which include theimportance of staying health and not consuming much of junk foods. Iwas able to understand the reasons why many people in Abu Dhabi thisenabled me to make proper conclusions and recommendations that willbe very helpful in case it is well and properly implemented.

  1. What are the practical implications of your findings?

Throughimplementation of the recommendations, this research study can be putclearly into practice [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].The government has to provide regulations that will govern theconsumption of junk food, for example regulations on the amount ofjunk food allowed to be processed by companies, the taxes can belevied on junk in order to increase the prices and in the processreduce consumption and finally the conduction public awarenessprograms through workshops and crusades can be helpful in helpingpeople reduce their ignorance on the health effects of consumption ofjunk food at higher rates [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. What policy recommendations might you make?

Somemajor policies have to be put into place in order to make sure thatindividuals have reduced their junk food consumption rates. Accordingto the findings of this research study it is clear that there is anincrease in the level of consumption of junk food in Abu Dhabi, thispose a necessity of making sure this rate is reduced to reduce thenegative impacts on consumption [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].I have recommended that the people should be made aware of impacts oftheir ignorance on the negative health effects of the junk foodconsumption [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].I have also recommended that the government through ADFA be able tomanage this consumption of junk food through regulations, this waythe government will reduce the high cost of public health on diseasessuch as diabetes caused by high consumption of junk food [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. What is the next study that you might design?

Accordingto the findings, it is clear that many people don’t understand thenegative impacts of the consumption of junk food. Looking into thisresearch I suggest that people should be taught about the depth ofhealth effects that people suffer a research on the health diseasessuch as diseases and lifestyles will have a good impact on the howpeople can protect themselves from such health issue [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. What your study is all about?

Myresearch study is about finding the reasons why people in Abu Dhabiare highly attracted to junk food. This research study delivers therequired solutions on how to reduce the level of junk foodconsumption within Abu Dhabi. The Abu Dhabi Food Authority has beenforced intervene in this particular situation to safe many peoplefrom falling victims of the health effects of junk food consumption[ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].From my research study, it is clear that the rate of consumption ofjunk food is very high in Abu Dhabi as compared with many other partsof United Arab Emirates. The main reason many people consume junkfood in Abu Dhabi according to our research study is because of thelow prices of junk food, lack of government regulation on junk foodconsumption and ignorance on the health effects that the consumptionof junk food can cause(Kacapyr,2011).

Myresearch study has used both the qualitative and quantitativeresearch methods in a collection, analysis and presentation of thefindings. Since the respondents were educated, a questionnaire wasused in conducting the research [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].Some of the most imperative factors that have led to people to havehigh junk food consumption include advertisements that promote junkfood and lack of consideration of the health effects of junk foodconsumption(Kacapyr, 2011).

  1. What is your motivation for this study?

Themajor problem that my study attempts to solve is reducing the healtheffects that most people in Abu Dhabi have been suffering from causedby the high level of junk food consumption in Abu Dhabi. Mymotivation is providing of practical solutions that will help solvethis problem through recommendations (Kacapyr, 2011). Some of thesolutions I have provided include drafting of proper regulations thatgovern junk food consumption and also creating public awarenessconcerning the health effects of junk food consumption through properadvertisements [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. If this study can contribute to the body of knowledge, then how?

Throughthis research study, many people will be able to understand theeffects of the ignorance on the health effects of their high rates ofconsumption of junk food. 93% of the respondents admitted that theyknow the health effects of junk food consumption [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ]this study will help them get knowledge on the then reason they stillconsume junk food in spite of the fact that they know the healtheffects of junk food consumption. Through this knowledge, they willbe able to abstain from junk food consumption and be able to avoidany health problems that come with this problem [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. What is the significance of the study?

Mystudy will be very beneficial to many institutions, the government,and individuals [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].This research has provided practical solutions to Abu Dhabi foodauthority on ways in which they can be able to reduce the consumptionof junk food within Abu Dhabi [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].The study through its SWOT analysis conducted on ADFA has enabledthis body to be able to understand its strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats. This way ADFA will be able to manage onthe ways through which they will deal with the problem [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].This study has recommended to the government to develop the requiredregulations that will help in reducing government expenditures on thepublic health due to health effects of junk food consumption. Throughthis study, the people within Abu Dhabi will be able to understandthe reasons why they are attracted to junk food consumption and findbetter ways to avoid it. Students and professionals conductingresearch on the same fiend will find it easy since this study hasprovided all the solutions to the problems of the high level ofconsumption of junk food in Abu Dhabi [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Is there any gap that you bridged in your study?

Mystudy is complete, and there is no field that was left uncovered.This study was conducted with high confidence that covered all thenavenues and areas that other researchers had not explored [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].Some of the fields that this research covered include research on theperformance of authorities such as ADFA and the government on theireffort to solve the problem of junk food consumption in Abu Dhabi(Kacapyr, 2011). Another unique area of research covered by thisresearch is the impact of advertisements, prices of junk food andignorance on the health effects by the people in Abu Dhabi. Some ofthese research areas have never been covered in any other research,and, therefore, they are unique and no gap was left uncovered in myresearch study [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

SecondaryResearch

  1. Describe what internal secondary research sources was accessed?

Theinternal secondary data that was accessed and used in this particularresearch study include journal reviews from ADFA and governmentmagazines[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. Describe what external secondary research was sourced?

Theexternal secondary data that was used and accessed in this particularresearch study is majorly the internet. The internet was veryhelpful in collection of secondary data including the levels ofaddiction and the availability of junk food within Abu Dhabi.[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ]

  1. Describe the limitations of secondary research

Therewere no much limitation of the secondary research as its use was veryuseful and effective the secondary research provided enoughquantitative information including the level of addiction. Thisresearch method provided efficient spending of information and thedecency of data collection [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

PrimaryResearch

  1. What are the different types of data collection

Theprimary data collection methods used are both qualitative andquantitative, administration of questionnaire manually and throughemails was used successfully. Interviews and human observationtechniques were also used in this research study and all of them werebeneficial to the study[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. What are the advantages of primary research?

Theuse of primary data was advantageous to the study in that it providedfirst hand and relevant information. This process was also very cheapand flexible as compared with the other means of data collection thatincluded the secondary data collection[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. What are the disadvantages of primary research?

Theprimary data collection method had one major disadvantage in that theresults might be unfair because of the use of judgment in choosingthe sample and low response time from the respondents(Cavazos-Cepeda, 2008).

LiteratureReview and/or Bibliography

  1. Is the review recent and comprehensive?

Theliterature review of this research study current and verycomprehensive, the literature has covered all the parts and no singlegap has been left. The literature review has touched some of theparts that has never been researched and these include the SWOTanalysis of ADFA and the level of influence of the media throughadvertisements on the level of junk food consumption in Abu Dhabi[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Are all the primary and secondary data sources cited?

Allthe secondary and primary sources have been cited in APA format inthe reference list. These primary sources including questionnairesand the swot analysis have been placed within the appendix and makingthe reference is easy and efficient[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. What are the main implications of the literature review?

Theliterature review has provided enough justification for the requiredinformation and data for this research. The literature review hashighly influenced the conclusions and the recommendations as theyprovide enough evidence needed to justify them[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

Subjectsof Research

  1. Is the size and main characteristics of the Stakeholders described?

Thesize and the main stake holder in this study are the public, ADFA,and the government have been highly described and their role in thisresearch have been made very clear for the audience and for thereaders[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].The public who played a role as the respondents have been clearlydescribed and their role has been effectively covered. ADFA which isa body given the authority they need to make sure that the foodswithin Abu Dhabi is good and health has been researched and its roleswell defined. The government account for the cost of the publichealth has also played a major role as a stake holder in the researchstudy and its responsibilities well described[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Were the entire Stakeholders studied?

Allthe stake holders have been well studied and their role indetermining the reasons why there is an increase in the consumptionof junk food in Abu Dhabi has been determined. The stakeholders whichinclude the public, the government and ADFA have been well studied[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Was a sample selected?

Therewere a number of samples that were selected and they includedpopulations within the shopping centres, public parks, schools,companies, and the universities[ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. What sampling techniques did you employ?

Thesampling technique that I employed in this research study ininclusion and exclusion criteria, and what sets up the population.The non-probability sampling method was used, this method was highlyrewarding as people was selected to participate in the research wasdone in a random manner [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].A stratified sampling method was also used to divide the homogenousgroup of respondents with the aim of making sure that the researchquestions are understood and well answered. This was very beneficialas many people were able to give the answers accordingly [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Was the method of selecting a sample clearly described?

Themethod used in sample selection was clearly described and thisparticular method used is stratified random sampling. Thesampling technique that I employed in this research study isinclusion and exclusion criteria, and what sets up the population.The non-probability sampling method was used, this method was highlyrewarding as people was selected to participate in the research wasdone in a random manner [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].A stratified sampling method was also used to divide the homogenousgroup of respondents with the aim of making sure that the researchquestions are understood and well answered. This was very beneficialas many people were able to give the answers accordingly [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Will the sample selection method use result in a representative, unbiased sample?

Thesample selection method did not result in any biased results as theratio used in each sample were the same at that is 0.370%, thispercentage was uniform in all the samples and hence it was completelyfair to every sample selected.

  1. Are the size and main characteristics of the sample described?

Themain characteristics of each sample have been described and clearlystated. The population, the ratio and the sample size of each samplehave been described to give a clear picture and the indication of theperformance within the field.

  1. Does the sample size meet suggested guidelines for minimum sample size appropriate for the method of research used?

Allthe samples selected met the required minimum guidelines for thestudy, the ratio used in each sample used was 0.370 and the estimatedpopulation was above 1000. This show that the sample selected had allthe requirements that were needed for the research methods used whichincluded questionnaires and surveys[ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

Instruments

  1. Is a rationale given for selection of the instruments used?

Theinstruments used to gather information for this research is cheaperas compared with many other instruments. The mail system as aninstrument providesefficiency and gives flexibility to the respondents to answer thequestions at their own convenient time and place [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Are the instruments appropriate for measuring the intended variables?

Theinstruments are effective and very appropriate in the measurement ofthe intended variable although it has one major disadvantage which isthe fact thatthe results might be unfair because of the use of judgment inchoosing the sample and low response time from the respondents [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. If an instrument was developed specifically for the study, are the procedures involved in its development and validation described?

Theinstruments were developed specifically for the study and thereforeall the procedures that were involved in the development and thevalidation of the instrument have been described. The use of emailsystem is quite efficient as the respondents were given anopportunity to state their opinions at their own convenient place andtime[ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Is evidence presented that indicates that each instrument is appropriate for the sample under study?

Eachof the of the sample study has results and enough evidence that showsthat the instruments used in each of the sample study was appropriateand completely efficient. A good example is the results of theaddiction and the frequency of consumption of junk food. It indicatedthat 53% of the population took at least 1 to 3 times of the junkfood in a week, 21% on the other hand indicated that they consumedthe junk food at least once in a day. With the instrument used it isclear that the results have been presented in an analytical andproper way[ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Is instrument validity discussed and coefficients given, if appropriate?

Thevalidity of the instruments have been discussed and theircoefficients have been given all app points where are appropriate.The administration of questionnaire through an email system has beendiscussed at length and its limitations and coefficients stated.

  1. If an instrument was specifically developed for the study, are administration, scoring and interpretation procedures fully described?

Theadministration, scoring and the interpretation procedures of thegiven data have been fully described within the study. Theadmintration process of the questionnaire was done through the emailswhile others were done manually, the results have been presented onthe appendix and they have been properly interpreted[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

Designand Procedure

  1. Is the design appropriate for testing the hypotheses/questions of the study?

Theresearch design has been clearly stated descriptiveresearch design was used for the study. It involved observing anddescribing the behaviour of a subject without influencing it. Underdescriptive research design, as a researcher, I go to the populationof interest to investigate reasons as to why people in Abu Dhabiprefer junk foods. The method has the following advantages subjectsare observed in their natural set up without influencing theenvironment it deals with clearly defined problems and desiredobjectives. It is therefore clear that the research design has beenused to help in testing the hypothesis and the research question.

  1. Are procedures described in sufficient detail to permit them to be replicated by another researcher?

Theprocedures have been clearly described and they can be replicated byany other researcher at any given time. Although there were a fewchallenges with the research itwas possible to not make appropriate and effective inferences inrelation to the reasons as to why people in Abu Dhabi prefer junkfoods. On the other hand, external validity is important in enhancinginferences regarding the whole population (Cavazos-Cepeda, 2008).This does not limit any other researcher from making a good use ofthe research study given in this particular study.

DataAnalysis/Results

  1. Are appropriate descriptive statistics presented?

Thestatistics that have been used in this research study are veryappropriate and highly descriptive. The statistics that have beenused include the population percentage, calculation of themultivariable regression analysis, the percentage of the responserates and the reliability tests. Regressionmethod was used due to its ability to test the nature of influence ofindependent variables on a dependent variable. Regression is able toestimate the coefficients of the linear equation, involving one ormore independent variables making it completely appropriate. Thereliability test was done on the questionnaire and Cronbach’s valueobtained was seen to be acceptable hence giving a go ahead to use thequestionnaire.

  1. Are the tests of significance described appropriate, given the hypotheses and design of the study?

Thetests of significance that have been described are completelyappropriate and very useful as related to the hypothesis and thedesign of the study. The hypothesis of the study which is todetermine the reasons why there is an increased rates of junk foodconsumption in Abu Dhabi has proved that the tests described whichinclude reliability tests of the questionnaire and the genderdistribution tests have been very relevant. The research design usedhelp in answered the thesis and then research question of the studyhence making it very effective.

  1. Was every hypothesis/question tested?

Thehypothesis or the question being tested is the reasons behind theincreased levels of junk food consumption in Abu Dhabi?

  1. Are the results clearly presented?

Theresults of the study have been clearly presented in charts andfigures that shows statistical values and ratios of the dataobtained. The presentation has been done on several factors whichinclude the demand for the junk food, locations where people purchasejunk food, the influence of advertisements, the need for governmentregulation and finally the consumer awareness on the health effectsassociated with junk food consumption.

  1. Are the table and figures (if any) well organized and easy to understand?

Thetable and figures that have been used in the study have been wellorganized and they have been presented in ways that can be easilyunderstood by the readers. In this particular study assessment 4alone has figures 1.0 to 1.9.

  1. Are the data in each table and figure described in the test?

Allthe data that have been put in the tables and figures have been welldescribed in the given tests. The meanings of data and values in thenfigures have been interpreted in their meaning to the tests and theresearch questions have been clearly stated.

Conclusions,Implications and Recommendations

  1. Is each result discussed in terms of the original hypothesis to which it relates?

Allthe results which include the results of level of addiction, demandof the junk food, places where junk food are available, availabilityof junk food, and the influence of the advertisements have beendiscussed in relation with the original thesis which is the reasonsbehind high rates of junk food consumption within Abu Dhabi.

  1. Is each result discussed in terms of its agreement or disagreement with previous results obtained by other researchers in other studies?

Thereare some disagreements on the results such s the results of the levelof influence of the advertisements on the consumption of junk foodespecially on young teenagers was initially not high but the resultsof this research has shown a very high level of influence of suchattractive adverts on the level of junk food consumption. Anotherdifference is in the availability of junk food in the pastresearchers found the availability of junk food not very influecialin terms of its consumption but the rise in the number of shopsselling junk foods has highly influenced the consumption.

  1. Are generalizations made that are not warranted by the results?

Thereare no generalizations that have been made on the research study allthe contents of the study are very specific and hence based on theresults and the theories. The research study has completely focusedon the problems statement and the thesis and hence avoids any generalinformation[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Are the possible effects of uncontrolled variables on the results discussed?

Thereare no any uncontrolled variables within the study and the resultsdiscussed and therefore these effects of the uncontrolled variableare not felt[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Are theoretical and practical implications of the findings discussed?

Thepractical implications of the research study are the fact that thegovernment is likely to implement the formulations of regulations andits implementation hence reducing the rate of junk food consumption.Another practical implication is the fact that the rates of junk foodconsumption can be easily reduced if all the recommendations areimplemented. The theoretical implication from the research study isthe fact that many people have been ignorant on their health and thehealth effects of high rates if junk food consumption.

  1. Are recommendations for future action made?

Accordingto the findings of this research study it is clear that there is anincrease in the level of consumption of junk food in Abu Dhabi, thispose a necessity of making sure this rate is reduced to reduce thenegative impacts on consumption [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].I have recommended that the people should be made aware of impacts oftheir ignorance on the negative health effects of the junk foodconsumption [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].I have also recommended that the government throughADFA be able to manage this consumption of junk food throughregulations, this way the government will reduce the high cost ofpublic health on diseases such as diabetes caused by high consumptionof junk food [ CITATION Pet032 l 1033 ].

  1. Based only on statistical significance, are suggestions for educational action made that are not justified by the data in other words, has the author confused statistical significance and practical significance?

Thereis no confusion between the statistical significance and thepractical significance as they are both related and they have thesame orientation. Both the statistical significance and the practicalsignificance has been recommended to be implemented in order to solvethe research problem[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Are recommendations for future research made?

Accordingto the findings, it is clear that many people don’t understand thenegative impacts of the consumption of junk food. Looking into thisresearch I suggest that people should be taught about the depth ofhealth effects that people suffer a research on the health diseasessuch as diseases and lifestyles will have a good impact on the howpeople can protect themselves from such health issue [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

(or Abstract) &nbsp

  1. Is the problem restated?

Myresearch problem is “what are the reasons why people in Abu Dhabiare consuming junk food in high levels?” This research question hasbeen clearly explored and answered I the research study [ CITATION Dav07 l 1033 ].

  1. Is the design used identified?

Theresearch design used has been clearly identified and used this studythe research design employed is a descriptive research design whichinvolves the use of observation, description of the behaviour of thesubject that is influencing it[ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

  1. Are procedures described?

Theprocedures involve the collectingdata from quite large number of cases making it more representative.Research design is cross section as it can be used in qualitative andquantitative data analysis to address the problem

  1. Are the major results and conclusions restated?

Mystudy has determined the reasons why people in Abu Dhabi have becomeattracted to consumption of junk food. I found out that the highrates of junk food consumption was due to factors such as addictionto junk food, low prices of junk food, lack of proper regulation andignorance on the health effects of junk food consumption. Theinfluence that the teenagers got from advertisements and vastavailability of the junk food has been also very imperative factorsthat have been influencing the consumption of junk food in Abu Dhabi.Through this research we have concluded that there is a high need toreduce the level of junk food consumption within Abu Dhabi and thiscan be done through the implementation of the recommendations [ CITATION Ric083 l 1033 ].

REFERENCES

Burke, J., &amp Larry , C. (2012). Educational research : quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Cavazos-Cepeda, R. H. (2008).Essays in Demand Estimation and Wealth Dynamics: Applications to Cultural Economics and the Life Cycle. Michigan: ProQuest.

King, D. C. (2007). United Arab Emirates. New York: Marshall Cavendish.

William G. Axinn, L. D. (2006). Mixed Method Data Collection Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.