Names Subject



CulturalCritique of Yellow Earth

Yellowearth is a film of the ancient Shaambei Peasant’s of China in the1930’s. It is a story of deep cultural attachments that neededreforms, but such reforms emanating from western influences were metwith hostility from the local people. This paper is a culturalcritique of the film. Through the critique, the paper explores a deepunderstanding as well as examining character development of Cuiquao,her position in the cultural setting and her role in highlighting thecultural relevance of Yellow Earth.

Thefilm “yellow earth” seems to be having an ironic twist.Culturally the film tells a story of the ancient cultural setting ofthe Chinese people who seem to be obsessed with their culture andhistory. There is a strong evidence of feudalism and superstitionamong the Chinese people. The soldier is expected to bring aboutwestern cultural change to these people. He conversely failsmiserably to bring any material or ideological change. However, thisirony is highlighted further when the peasants who have beenliberated engage in drum-dancing, displaying positive reactions ofthe young generations (Groot 112). The young generations welcome theidea of revolutions led by young people like Cuiqiao and Hanhan.

Theancient Chinese cultural representation of colors and theincorporation of natural resources have been highlighted by the film,just like other Chinese films (Clark 29). Yellow earth represents andsignifies an immediate embrace of non-western alternatives. Themakers of the film have stressed on the need of Chinese culturalrepresentation through the limited range of colors. Moreover, thereis the use of natural lightening coupled with a non-viewpoint use offilmic space. All these integrations initiate and aspire to a Taoistbelief. However the film has little depths that represent the horizonand the sky proportioning them to an extreme. Zero political codingis represented by the Chinese use of nature through ancient paintings(Kuoshu 22). Thus the Chinese political discourse is indeed poorlyrepresented by the Yellow Earth’s, starting the film byprioritizing of the Chinese narrative and departing from theconventional style.

Thefilm “Yellow Earth” further depicts marriage as a ritual andromance as a taboo in the ancient Chinese culture. The problematicrelations of affinity further complicate these relationships. Cuiquaohas an excessive distance relationship with her peasant father whileshe engages in an intimate relationship with Hanhan. Cuiquao engagesin this intimate relationship, which is a cultural taboo, which costof her own life. This way, the film illustrates social patriarchy andsexual repression. In this regard it involves a lot of negotiationbetween socialist feminism and the existing patriarchy.

The“Yellow Earth” clearly highlights the cultural activities of theShaambei peasant. According to Groot, they seem to have a specialmaterial relationship with their lands. The film depicts the peasantactively involved in these repetitive cultural activities such as theplug of their lands on bare slopes and resistively getting water fromthe ten mile yellow river. Moreover, they are highlighted tendingafter animals such as the sheep. They cook quietly in their cavedhomes. A moderate out of the ordinary interest is accorded to rainprayers and marriages. Regardless of the fact that they show loyalallegiance to their cultural setting, they are however guided by apractical philosophy. They have a paternal benevolence to one anotherand only engage in few words. This is because there is a highpossibility that they are neither sad nor happy. Cuiquao’s fatheris shown trying to sing some folk songs in the presence of thesoldier in fear of losing his job.

Inaddition the film depicts the symbolic representation of the Agrarianreceptivity that is ancient. The film does not indicate anyagricultural activities such as farming or harvesting. The film hason the other hand illustrated the ancient cultural setting of a oneman, one tree and one cow. The land appears to be flattened and bare.The symbolic representation of the yellow river brings about mixedmeanings. The yellow river has been shown to sustain the lives of theancient Chinese people as well as destroying their very ownexistence. The setting of the film depicts a culture that requireschange, but the peasants are held on to their cultural values (Clark29). This has been highlighted by the physical display of the landand the people that has obviously amounted to delay to theintroduction to modernity. The people are stubbornly attached totheir cultural beliefs.

Theyellow earth also illustrates the peasants as a people who have ahigh regard to their land. They commonly refer to their land as theyellow earth. There is a genuine relationship depicted between thepeople and their land which is a deification form. Moreover the filmoffers a balanced understanding of the agrarian beliefs. Statementsmade by the soldier reflect his deep beliefs of the modernized formof reforms. The relationship of the soldiers with the peasantsindicates a revolution that tries to replace the existing mythicbeliefs (Groot 117). However, there is a strong blind loyaltydepicted by the peasants to their lands. This discovers homology andis narrated by the soldier by a normal conversation with his leader.Hence the ancient structure of power changes.

Thefilm further shows the peasants assembling in their dried out landand they are relentlessly singing their ancient Chinese folk songs.These folk songs describe their mythical cultural beliefs in aprimitive form. The manner in which they praise their gods indicatesa form of survival instinct to their gods. They collectivelydemonstrate their cultural blindness to the ties of their culturalbeliefs (Kuoshu 29). This blindness is further demonstrated by thesoldier who is depicted standing silently at a distance. Theircollective failure is reflected by the soldier’s unnatural behavioras well as the soldier’s failure to help reproach from their owncultural blindness.

Theyellow earth film demonstrates the roots of feudalism that can betraced back to the peasants’ cultural and economic basis. These twoimportant factors clearly help to bring about the Chinese socialism.The film brings to light clearly the micro-narrative that reflectsChina’s contemporary political and economic that are historicized(Groot 121). The land draws out both vertically and horizontallywithin the film’s frame. This is a centrifugal depiction of asymbolically boundless space that is clearly unfocused to one’sconscious that seeks pleasure. Thus, it is possible to view the filmwithout necessarily becoming a product of cinematic discourse.

Theyellow earth shows the impacts of the failed fate of Cuiquao. Thisunsuccessful fate has integrated the whole view of social identitywith the critique of political discourses that are dehumanized.Feudalism and the victimization of women are signified by the cultureof paternally arranged marriages that engage in exchange of women.The kind paternal fathers are replaced by the usual clichés of classvillains and cruel fathers. Since the 1930’s China has often usedliterature and films to illustrate the use of feudal marriageceremonies. However yellow earth seems to be more complex and subtlein the way sympathy for women enunciated (Semsel 14). It is throughthis structural setting that the film “yellow earth” hassuccessfully made known of the statement of patriarchal power assymbolically evident in cultural, social and political practice.

Thereis an excessive and repetitive use of the red color in the film.Naturally red color represents fortune, happiness and spontaneity.However the use of Cuiquao together with other women reverse thisentire knowledge and meaning with the demonstration of oppressivemarriages. Cuiquao is depicted as a spectator in the first marriage.She witnesses the bride and groom kneeling in front of the perceivedancestor’s plate after which she is led straight to the bedroom.The different shots of Cuiquao taken during the entire time depicther as a young rural female and more importantly as a potentialvictim (YellowEarth 1).Cuiquao is forced to witness the entire ancient victimizingnarrative, though it is important to understand that she was entirelyconnected.

Thefirst relationship that Cuiquao engages with the soldier brings tolight the issue of women liberation. The yellow earth depictsCuiquao’s father as the one who is a defiant feudal and the soldieron the other hand is the promise of liberation. A dialogue betweenthe soldier and the peasants’ best illustrate this fact. HoweverCuiquao’s father shot back at him with a strong allegiance to thecultural rules that bound them. However, looking at differentcomparisons brings about a strong fixation of women. One is the factthe peasant need of village survival that is guaranteed throughexchange of women. The other one is the need of reforms thatliberates women for an assurance of a cause.


Clark,Paul. ChineseCinema: Culture and Politics Since 1949. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press (CUP) Archive,1987, Print

Grootde Jerome. ConsumingHistory and Heritage of Contemporary China.New York. Routledge Publication. 2009. Print

Kuoshu,H. Harry. CelluloidChina: Cinematic Encounter with Society and Culture.Illinois. Southern Illinois Press. 2005. Print

Semsel,George., Chen, Xihe., and Xia, Hong. Film in Contemporary China:Critical Debates, 1979-1989. Santa Barbara, Ca: ABC-CLIO

YellowEarth.Dir.KaigeChen.Written. KaigeChen,and Ziliang,Zhang. GuangxiFilm Studio,1984. DVD

Names Subject



ArgentinaEconomic Crisis and Economic Concepts

Argentinawas affected by a financial crisis that originated in early 1980’s.The country of Argentina reached a point where its foreign financialdebt surpassed its earning power that the country was not capable ofrepaying it. This crisis emanated from the fact that the country hadborrowed heavily from foreign creditors, particularly for thepurposes of industrialization, most particularly to work on thecountry’s infrastructural programs (Herman et al 50). Argentinasought debt financing during the time of borrowing, to finance theeconomic projects. In this regard the international creditors werehappy to lend the money to Argentina up to 1983. Argentina’sinternational debt rose to a soaring balance of $315 billion from aformer balance of $75 billion (Herman et al 51). This was due to acumulative annual interest that was increasingly adding up to anannual rate of 20.4 percent.

Argentinasunk lower into financial debts and was unable to regulate itsfinancial obligations because it was under the mercy of theinternational foreign exchange institutions. Trading of currencies isprimarily conducted at an international, decentralized foreignexchange marketplace. This encompasses all aspects of selling, buyingand exchanging currencies at determined and current prices (Galli etal 117). Foreign exchange market is the largest trading market in theentire world. The main contributors in this sort of trading marketare the largest global banks. Financial centers and institutionsaround the entire world acts as the anchors of trading flanked avariety of ranges of manifold of sellers and buyers around the clockbut with an exception of weekends (Weithers 30). The foreign globalmarkets are the determinants of the relative values of all thecurrencies in the world.

Theglobal foreign markets had offered Argentina huge financial loansbecause it had a booming economy at the time. These foreign marketsfunctions through all financial institutions and is operated throughmany different types of levels. Behind the scenes, banks go round toa smaller number of institutions of finance that are generallyreferred to as dealers (Galli et al 60). These dealers are activelyconcerned in huge quantities of trading in foreign exchange. It isimportant to note that most of these foreign exchange dealers arebanks. And in this regard, these dealing markets are sometimesreferred to as interbank markets (Weithers 31). In addition to thesedealers, some other financial institutions, including some insurancecompanies also do actively participate. The foreign trading involvesa huge market of traders with millions of dollars that are traded ona daily basis. However, international foreign markets have modestsupervisory entity regulations because of its sovereignty issues.

Behavioraleconomics in Argentina and all the related fields have impacts on thesocial, psychological, emotional, cognitive factors on the economicpronouncements. These economic decisions belong to institutions andindividual and their consequence in market prices, resourceallocations and the returns (Galli et al 120). This explains theconsequences of Argentina’s irrational decisions and their impacts. This field of study involves with the boundaries of rationality ofall economic agents. The behavioral models usually incorporateinsights from neuroscience, psychology and micro-economic theories.In this regard it is plausible to conclude that behavioral modelstypically cover a variety of concepts, fields and methods. Inaddition to behavioral economics are usually discussed as asubstitute to neo-classical economics (Weithers 32). This entails thestudy of how decisions are made and the methods that force publicchoice.

Themain idea in behavioral finance is giving reasons why marketscontribute in making irrational methodical errors. This is contraryto the assumptions of balanced market participants and key players.The errors made in this regard have a consequence impacts on pricesand returns thus creating markets incompetence (Galli et al 125).These errors had contributed to Argentina’s economic predicaments. Further behavioral finance seeks to investigate the methodology usedby other participants in taking advantage of such errors and theconsequence of market inefficiency. It clearly highlights marketincompetence such as over or under reactions to information, extremecases of bubbles, causes of market trends and finally market crash(Herman et al 55). Such reactions have been credited to limitedinvestors’ attention, over optimism, overconfidence, noise tradingor mimicry. This study is considered to be behavioral economics andthe hypothetical basis of technical analysis.

Assetbubble can be seen when there is a sharp increase in the prices ofsecurities and other assets at a sustained rate. This happens tosecurities or other assets and the prices typically exceed theirvaluations (Galli et al 124). Moreover, they are warranted byfundamentals making an abrupt collapse in Argentina’s economicbliss for instance, to a point that is normally refereed as thebusted bubble. For instance, one can easily indicate that the housingprevailing booms in Ireland and Spain were caused by low borrowing.As a result, their busting resulted to a strained banking system(Herman et al 60). Risk management and central banking are closelyinterconnected. The central banks play a crucial part in in thefinancial markets through their financial operations.

Inaverting the implications of the theatrical intensifications onbank’s liquidity the central bank plays key roles. It is howeverimportant to note that central banks like in the case of Argentina,had no comparative advantage in regulating the operations of creditrisk management (Weithers 70). They had together with other globalcentral banks conventionally held a low level of tolerance in thisregard. This has consequently made them to have limited expertise inthe operations regarding credit risk management. In case of afinancial crisis the central banks have a direct important impact onthe allocation or allotment of public money. Therefore the centralbanks can help to overcome or allay a liquidity crisis by bringing inadditional cash into the financial system (Herman et al 77). Thecentral bank has important and significant instruments that it canuse to manage the financial crisis.

Asa consultant, I would pick the lessons that effective monetary andfiscal management would help manage economic crisis, such as the oneexperienced in Argentina and spur economic growth. in addition,economic growth is a key factor that when effectively used cancompetently be used to manage an economic crisis. This is because ofthe fact that a sustainable growth rate depends on key structuraldealings such as effective regulatory reforms such as the fiscal andmonetary reforms. These policies could further help improve thedistributions of wealth, income and assets within the country ofArgentina (Herman et al 77). They could be adjusted to contribute toan economic contraction or expansion. Thus the uses of sustainablepolicies are integral factors of sustaining aggregate demand.


GalliGiampaolo, Giovannini Albert and Jeffery A. Frankel. Themicro structure of foreign exchange markets.Chicago. Chicago University Press. 2009. Print

HermanBarry, Ocampo Jose and Spiegel Shari. OvercomingDeveloping Country Debt Crisis. NewYork. Oxford University Press. 2010. Print

WeithersTim. Foreign Exchange: Apractical Guide to the FX Markets.New York. John Wiley &amp Sons Inc. 2011. Print

Names Subject



Competitivenessof the e-shopping Industry

E-shoppinghas gained prominence as businesses deal directly with theircustomers through the internet. Amongst the top online corporationsare, eBay and Alibaba. These online retailing corporationsare largely international as they serve the global market. This paperwill analyze the scale of competition in this industry through theuse of a defined and credited data. The discussion on the data willexplore how the e-shopping industry is competitive, with a view ofillustrating that it is a competitive industry.

Theseinternational corporations have shown the high amount of revenueinputs to their respective countries as they serve the global market.Statistics indicate that in the United States had recorded revenue of$364.66 billion in 2012. However, this amount was superseded by theAsian-Pacific that had recorded a $433 billion of revenue indicatinga difference of about $69 billion to their counterparts in the UnitedStates (Moerke and Storz 113). Statistics further revealed a further30% increase in sales in these international corporations in thefollowing years (James 50). This indicates a positive trend and agrowing industry in the world of business. The above dataillustrating company sales indicates the positive trend that is beingadopted by more and more companies as well as the shoppers.

Inthe United States product sales made from e-shopping amounted to atotal of $142.5 billion, which is about 8% of product sales in theretail businesses. In the year 2014, about 8% of the total domesticmarket bought $26 billion worth of clothes (Morke and Storz 115). Ithas become one of the most popular forms of shopping to 72% of thefemale shoppers in the United States. Forrester research came up withfigures indicating that e-shopping is projected to grow to about $279billion in this current year, 2015 (Morke and Storz 115). This shiftwas seen in China that recorded a significant 242 million peoplepreferring online shopping to conventional methods in 2012 (Fry 71).

E-shoppingis comprised of predominantly the comparable online retailers withsimilar assortments of services and products competing for the samemarket segment. For this reason there is a great need for thesebusinesses to have affective and attractive product differentiation(Cornelius 120). Amazon online store stands at the top of the listliteral offering millions of products to a variety of consumers. Itis important to note however that online stores collectively offeraffordable and lowest prices on products to customers everywhere. Inthis regard, they dominate the differentiations of assortments, lowprices and convenience.

Globalonline survey of 2014 indicated Alibaba to hold the largest globalmarket share of 23.7 percent. Amazon being a popular online retailstore in the United States closely followed with 22 percent (Fry 67).Online stores thrive on product differentiation to attain acompetitive advantage through differentiated techniques by newservices, trained staff and creating new levels of customerexperiences like in apple online store. In this regard one cacompetently conclude that product differentiation is more importantthan it appears in the surface as it aids consumers in makingpurchasing decisions.

Verticalintegration is another aspect that is continually improving thecompetitive advantage of online stores. This is mainly aimed atincreasing the company’s power in the market by owning thedistributions and retailing of products (Moerke and Storz 132).Vertical integration has been employed mostly by a whole newgeneration of online businesses that have emerged to compete formarket share. The retail value chain, branding and distribution arecontinually being vertically integrated with these web-only brands.This is mostly achieved by completely eliminating conventional storesfrom supply chain and being able to deliver products directly to theconsumers from the manufacturers or factories (James 70). It is veryimportant to note that competition has stiffened more in the onlinebusinesses where manufacturing companies are opting to keep andmarket their products exclusively in their own online stores. Thisfurther avoids the stiff price competition of similar products fromrival companies such as Amazon.

Verticalintegration in any vertical market are normally similar in theiractivities in that they share the same objective that is solvingcommon problems. The overlapping focusing of the services andproducts which are provided to the consumers make this strategycompetitive. One particular case study that fully embraced verticalintegration is the Chinese-based online store, Alibaba. The companyemployed this strategy in order to increase its market share as wellas its profits. It built its headship in the global market bysteadily acquiring complementary companies that offer a variety ofservices that basically include payments and delivery. Verticalintegration has proven to be beneficial to Alibaba Company making itthe most profitable online company in China and a market leader inonline shops across the globe.

Finallypersistence research and innovation in e-shopping business hasenabled businesses to compete more effectively through productdiversification. This is aimed at reaching more customers from everyavailable angle to maximize on revenue collection (Fry 72). One majoronline giant that has successfully incorporated this competitiveadvantage is the Alibaba’s online store. Alibaba was able todiversify its products by focusing its attention to the mobile apps.This is due to the shift in customer’s behavior of engaging morethrough their mobile devices. Alibaba was able to edge more intoe-shopping and social media to get new more avenues for engaging newclients and venture into new revenues (Moerke and Storz 132). Thistype of product diversification is an integral part of gainingcompetitive advantage in the online business.

Inconclusion, e-shopping offers a unique new ways of doing businessthrough innovative customized services that are aimed at achievingunbeatable competitive advantage. This industry employs thestructural performance dimension in gaining its competitive edge.There is no doubt that this unique way of doing business offers avibrant environment for competition in delivering goods and services.


Scott,James. InternationalBusinness.Ohio. Western Cengage Learning. 2014. Print

Cornelius,Peter. TheGlobal Competitiveness Report.New York. Oxford University Press. 2006. Print

Fry,John. RegionalTrends in Economic Integrations.Washington DC. USITC Publication. 2014. Print.

MoerkeAnddreas, Storz Cornelia. Competitivenessof New industries: Institutional Framework.New York. Routledge. 2014. Print