Name of institution

Issues on tourism

Course and number

Tourismis the act of a person moving from his/her country to another countryto visit places of interests. It is a much lucrative industry in theworld we have countries whose economies are dependent on tourism.Over the years’ tourism has faced a lot of challenges that hasaffected it so much, some issues are concurrent meaning that theyaffect tourism yearly. In this paper, it will talk about the issuesthat tourism faces to this day. The work will be divided intosub-topics that will explain each and every issue affecting tourism.

Highlytaxed industry

Itis hard to notice that tourism is a very high taxed business if youhave never been a tourist before you wouldn’t know. Their airtickets are usually very high taxed, hotel booking and even therental car they are supposed to hire. In most of the countries thatdepend on tourism, 40% of the economy is dependent on tourismtherefore, you can see how much tourists pay. Some governments whenasked why do they put very high taxes on tourists they say that whentourists come to their country they need a lot of protection and forthat it takes a lot of resources. Though in reality they fail toaccount for just how much money non-residents add to the economy interm of their purchases and their payment of taxes (Fennell 2001pp111-118)

GlobalStandardization

Thisis whereby we have a less unique locale the global market placemeans that same products are available throughout the world. Thismeans that people won’t need to travel to see something, a goodexample is a zoo where a certain animal that is only found in Africais taken to America to be kept in a zoo so that the local people canvisit the zoo that is cheaper than travelling to another country.Another example is where the main reason for travelling is toexperience new places but you find that going to these new places isjust the same as being at home like having malls everywhere (Hiller1998 pp47-57).

Costof Fuel

Tourismis highly dependent on the price of fuel because when summer comes inthere is a lot of travelling. This means that the cost of fuel willrise and this will make tourists increase their budget on fuel. Weeven have cases whereby in some countries they may increase the costof fuel not because it is low supply but increase the profit theywill get after selling it (Baum 1998 pp167-175).

Awireless communication world

Thismeans that one can be there without being there. It is a good thingthat technology has improved and made life simpler but at the sametime it has come with its disadvantages. In the business world beforetechnology was where it is today meetings that happened in othercountries involved people arranging trips to go to these meetings. Inthis modern day and age, it is very different from then, these dayswe have video conference calls where there is no need for travellingso people sit in a room and start their meeting online. This hasreduced the number of tourists travelling to other countries and theeconomy of the affected countries. We also have a situation where weare moving from a classic world to a virtual world. This means thatpeople do not need to travel and they can get to see somethingvirtually (Baum 1998 pp167-175).

Security

Thisis an issue that has brought adversely effects to tourism and lack ofsecurity has affected tourism a lot. A good example is when the twintowers were bombed by a tourist in 2001 .this was a wakeup call inthe USA meaning that they had to beef up their security and protecttheir citizens and the tourists who go to the USA.After such attacktourism has been on a decrease and another good example is Kenyawhere it has been a victim of terrorist attacks known as theal-Shabaab. Kenya is known for its wildlife, natural landscape andclimate but due to such attacks the country has seen the rate oftourism being drop drastically. When such cases happen, you find thatcountries start to issue travel bans on some countries that can’tbe able to offer security to its non-citizens. We also have caseswhere tourists are being kidnapped and their relatives being askedfor ransom a good example is Somali when they kidnap tourists who areon their shore lines (Hall 2002 pp458-466).

HealthIssues

Eventhough health issues is not a major issue that affects tourism still,it’s not a factor that should be neglected. When it comes to healthissues, it means that a certain country has an outbreak of a disease.A good example is when there was an outbreak of Ebola outbreak. Theoutbreak caused a lot of calamities in the West African countries.When the outbreak began, there were cases of the disease being spreadto other countries that had their citizens there. This led tocountries trying to cancel flights to countries that were affected bythe outbreak of the disease. This outbreak crippled western Africaand to date we don’t have a lot of people going there (Coles &ampHall 2006 pp289-292).

PoliticalConditions

Politicalconditions are whereby we have countries having a civil war. Civilwar mainly happens when a country has political issues and a goodexample is South Sudan where up to date we still have a civil war.When the civil war comes to happen, we find cases where by touristsare unable to travel back to their countries. In some cases, thisleads to non-citizens being killed. When such scenarios happen, thegovernment gets the pressure of not being able to protect itscitizens who are abroad. This might lead to affected countries tryingto resolve the civil war that sometimes due to the intervention thewar worsens more. This leads to a drop in tourist travelling to theaffected country and country issues travel bans to stop its citizensfrom going to that countries. Such countries from research done couldhighly depend on tourism to boost their economy if they avoided thecivil war. The most discouraging fact is that to return to the statewhere tourists flow in the country will take a lot of years eventhirty plus years (Scheyvens 2007 pp231-254)

Sanctionsissued due to poor relations

Asanction is a rule or approval to something. We have situationswhereby we have sanctions being issued to some countries. Sanctionsmainly happen when two countries have poor relations with each other.A good example of such scenario is when the United States of Americaissues sanctions on Iran on allegations that Iran was still producingnuclear bombs or performing nuclear tests. Due to such sanctions wehad cases where we had tourists fleeing both countries going back tothem to their own. Such poor relations lead to countries beingaffected regarding their economy. This sometimes can lead tocountries having negative publicity (Sharpley &amp Craven 2001pp527-537)

Religion

Religioncan be a factor that can affect the rate of tourism in a country, forexample when we are talking about terrorists we find the majority ofthem being are Muslims because they believe they are jihad. Suchperceptions tend to make people believe that Muslims are againstother religions yet it is just a few members of the religion who aretarnishing the Muslim name. It is then we find that we have countriesthat the citizens are afraid to visit such countries because they areafraid that they might be killed. This affects such countries thatcan depend on tourism to boost their economies (Hinch 1998pp120-124).

Pooradvertising

Itis not every tourist destination is known by everybody. We havesituations where by a country has good and a lot of touristdestination. Such countries usually have a poor or no advertisingdone by their governments. Such adverts might be on the internetwhere the country has a website to showcase what tourist destinationstheir countries. We also have a situation where by counties do nothold exhibitions. An exhibition is whereby a country goes to showcase the tourist destinations it has. This method is usually veryeffective with because it lets other tourists know what they didn’tknow about other countries. If some counties would follow suit likeother countries, then it means we would countries benefitting out oftourism (Reisinger &amp Steiner 2006 pp481-498)

Economy

Wealso have situations where the economy of a country is not doingwell. There are times inflation can affect a country that thecurrency exchange rate becomes very high. For example, we can have asituation whereby a citizen from a country that has been affected byinflation declines to travel to another country because the currencyrate is very high. This usually happens to citizens in the 3rd worldcountries. This might not be a very major issues compared to the restof the issues mentioned but its worth noting because when statisticsis done in a period of a year it will show that tourism is affectedso much in a period of time. It is, therefore, important to try andregulate economy so that it cannot affect other countries (Brown 2005pp479-496).

NaturalDisasters

Wehave issues where by a country is affected by a natural disaster likeearthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, flooding, etc. Suchdisasters usually affect tourism in a very big way, for example whenJapan was affected by an earthquake that killed thousand plus people.Such a disaster brought attention to Japan and also made peopleafraid to go to Japan. When the tremors occurred trips to Japan hadto be cancelled because of the safety of other people. The good thingis that the fall of the number of tourists to Japan will not be longterm as compared to countries that were affected by civil war ordisease outbreak (Madden 2002 pp7-21).

Airports

Thiscan be another factor that might affect the number of tourist cominginto a country. This is because the size of an airport can determinethe number of tourists that a country can handle. If a countrydecides to increase the size of their airport, this will mean thatthe country will have more flights coming in which in turn means thatthe number of tourists will increase. A good example of a countrythat did this was the UK and in the following year there was a risein the number of tourists in the UK. It can be noted that a country’stourism sector can be affected by the size of the airport. Anothergood thing is that if you increase the size of the airport it meansthat the cost of travelling will be low hence again increasingtourism. Therefore, it is important for countries that want moretourists to invest in increasing the size of the airport (Zhao &ampRitchie 2007 pp119-143).

Visastrictness

Visastrictness means that how hard it is sometimes to get a visa to beable to travel to other tourist destinations. We have situationswhereby a country tries to control immigration complications bytrying to deny people visas to go to their countries. This usuallyaffects tourists who want to travel to such countries. A good exampleof such country is the USA where if you are living in a 3rd worldcountry it is not easy for them to easily give you a visa. Suchscenarios affect tourism even if the effects of the situation cannotbe noticed but eventually it will come to affect tourism (Dodds 2007pp296-322). Such countries that want to reduce immigration casesshould find a way that they would try to reduce immigration and atthe same time not affecting tourism in their in the country (Yu &ampTurco 2000 pp138-149).

Conclusion

Tourismis a global industry that pumps in billions of dollars yearlytherefore, this means it is a business that should be well investedin. Issues that affect tourism in a country should be solved, andcountries should also make investments, do advertising so as topromote tourism in their countries and explore more ideas to curb thecurrent issues affecting tourism (Leiper 2000 pp364-368).

List of references

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Hiller, H. H. 1998. Assessing the impact of mega-events: a linkagemodel. Current issues in tourism, 1(1), 47-57.

Baum, T. 1998. Taking the exit route: Extending the tourism arealife cycle model. Current Issues in Tourism, 1(2),167-175.

Hall, C. M. 2002. Travel safety, terrorism and the media: thesignificance of the issue-attention cycle. Current Issues inTourism, 5(5), 458-466.

Coles, T., &amp Hall, M. 2006. Editorial: The geography oftourism is dead. Long live geographies of tourism and mobility.Current Issues in Tourism, 9(4-5), 289-292.

Scheyvens, R. 2007. Exploring the tourism-poverty nexus.Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), 231-254.

Sharpley, R., &amp Craven, B. 2001. The 2001 foot and mouthcrisis–rural economy and tourism policy implications: a comment.Current Issues in Tourism, 4(6), 527-537.

Hinch, T. 1998. Ecotourists and indigenous hosts: Diverging viewson their relationship with nature. Current Issues in Tourism,1(1), 120-124.

Reisinger, Y., &amp Steiner, C. 2006. Reconceptualisinginterpretation: The role of tour guides in authentic tourism.Current Issues in Tourism, 9(6), 481-498.

Brown, S. 2005. Travelling with a purpose: Understanding themotives and benefits of volunteer vacationers. Current issues intourism, 8(6), 479-496.

Madden, J. R. 2002. The economic consequences of the SydneyOlympics: the CREA/Arthur Andersen study. Current Issues inTourism, 5(1), 7-21.

Zhao, W., &amp Ritchie, J. B. 2007. Tourism and povertyalleviation: An integrative research framework. Current Issues inTourism, 10(2-3), 119-143.

Yu, Y., &amp Turco, D. M. 2000. Issues in tourism event economicimpact studies: The case of the Albuquerque International BalloonFiesta. Current Issues in Tourism, 3(2), 138-149.

Leiper, N. 2000. Are Destinations` The Heart of Tourism`? TheAdvantages of an Alternative Description. Current Issues inTourism, 3(4), 364-368.

Yu, Y., &amp Turco, D. M. 2000. Issues in tourism event economicimpact studies: The case of the Albuquerque International BalloonFiesta. Current Issues in Tourism, 3(2), 138-149.

Dodds, R. 2007. Sustainable tourism and policy implementation:Lessons from the case of Calviá, Spain. Current Issues inTourism, 10(4), 296-322.