Mechanical Engineering Revised

Influence of strain rate on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials9

Thestress-strain behavior analysis of polymers is similar to that ofmetals. However, there is an important consideration for polymersthat their mechanical properties depend on the rate of strain,temperature, and the conditions of the environment (Shah &amp Shah2007, p. 23). The behavior under stress-strain could be brittle,plastic or highly elastic (elastomeric or rubber-like). In Polymers,tensile modulus (modulus) and tensile strengths are considerablysmaller than those in metals. However, elongation can go up to 1000 %in some special cases. The tensile strength, which is defined at thepoint of fracture, can be lower than the yield strength.

Themechanical properties of the polymers change considerably as thetemperature changes.At low temperatures, they display littleglass-like behavior while at high temperature they show arubber-like behavior. Decreasing the rate of strain influences thestrain-strength characteristics just like increasing the temperature.It makes the material softer and more ductile (Mark 2007, p.17)

Semi-crystallinepolymers have the spherulitic structure that deforms in the followingsteps: the amorphous tying chains elongate, the lamellar chain foldstilts towards the tensile direction, crystalline block segmentsseparates, parts and tie chains are oriented in the tensiledirection. Their macroscopic deformation is characterized by an upperand a lower yield point and necking. Unlike metals, the polymer’sneck becomes stronger because the deformation aligns the chains henceincreasing the tensile stress that leads to the growth of the neck.

Thetensile test consists of subjecting a given specimen to a slowtensile load that increases gradually. It allows equilibrium to beconstantly established between the imposed load and the inducedstrain. The specimen has two reference marks that are initiallyplaced at a distance L0,called the initial gauge length. A force F applied to the test piececauses deformation that increases the gauge length to a value, L(Shah &amp Shah 2007, p.31). The new testing machines record thisgauge length as a function of the applied load and plot directly acurve showing how the strain with stress.

Theimpact test involves measuring the amount of energy required to breakin a single blow, a Vor U-notched specimen that is supported at twopoints (Shah &amp Shah 2007, p.32). The impact strength is thereforedefined as the energy in joules per square millimeter, required tobreak the test piece. Impact testing machines use a swingingpendulum, and the Charpy impact tester is the most common type.Although standard specimens require a minimal of 10 mm thickness,there are standardized sub-size samples that exist as well forspecimens with thicknesses greater than 5mm.

Strengthof the Impact (K) = energy absorbed for fracture W (joules)/areaunder the notch (mm2)

Theeffect strength is measured at room temperature. However, but forvarious applications, it is necessary to know how the materialbehaves at low temperatures.

Procedure

Thetest machine,a Zwick-Roell Z020, wasset up to give 2-3different strain rates for each material, for or instance, 10, 50 and500 mm/min. The materials tested included Acetal, PVC, HDPE, LDPE,and Nylon 66. The load is gradually applied to the test piece to thepoint that it fractures. During this test, the load that makes acertain elongation of the material is recorded. A load versuselongation curve is plotted by an x-y plotter. It is used to obtainthe tensile behavior of the material. A stress-strain curve plottedusing this load-elongation curve by performing the requiredcalculations. The curve is studied to find the mechanical parameters.

Thesame test materials were also evaluated by impact testing using theZwick-Roell 5113 machine. A fine notch, made with a razor blade, wasintroduced into the test specimens. Impact testing is a test methodin which an ‘excessive’ strain rate was applied.

Results(As attached appendix)

Discussion

Whenunder stress and strain, the polymers behave like a linear elasticsolid. At the proportional limit, the behavior of the polymer startsto be non-linear. The maximum point in the stress-strain curve is theyieldpoint andshows the onset of plastic deformation. The corresponding points ofstress and elongation are the yieldstrength andelongationat yield respectively.After the yield point, the polymer stretches out considerably andforms a neck. The region is called the plasticregion.

Furtherelongation abruptly increases the stress (strainhardening)and the ultimate ruptureofthe polymer. The stress and strain that corresponds to the point ofrupture are the ultimatestrength andthe elongationat break,respectively. The stress-strain characteristics of a polymer dependon several factors like characteristics of molecules, microstructure,rate of strain and temperature.

Acetals

Acetalsare crystalline plastics that offer an excellent balance ofproperties that bridge the gap between metals and plastics. They showthe highest strength and stiffness properties among thermoplastics.The chemical composition, regular molecular structure and high degreeof crystallinity result in a unique combination of outstandingcharacteristics of Acetals are not found in metals or most otherplastics. Acetals have a tensile strength ranging from 54.4 to92.5MPa, a tensile modulus of about 3400MPa, while, at roomtemperature, fatigue strength is about 34MPa. Also, Acetals have thebest creep resistance properties. These properties combine with lowmoisture absorption (less than 0.4%), giving them excellentdimensional stability. They find applications in making parts thatare exposed to wet environments such as pumps, valves, gears,bearings, bushes and electrical insulators.

Acetalshave good impact resistance and outstanding surface hardness due totheir high degree of crystallinity.

PVC

Likeother polymers, the stress /strain response of the PVC depends onboth time and temperature. When there is a constant static loadapplied on the PVC material, the resulting strain behavior is rathercomplex. The immediate elastic response fully recovers as soon as theload is relieved (Rösler etal,..2007p.37). Additionally, the deformation is slower, and this continuesindefinitely as the load is applied until the rupture point. This iscalled creep. If the loading is removed before the failure occurs,recovering of the initial dimensions occur gradually with time. Creeprate and recovery are also depended onthe temperature. Hightemperatures increase the creep rate. As a result, these plastics arereferred to as viscos-elastic materials.

PVCis largely amorphous, and the size of chlorine atoms causessignificant intermolecular interface, and the polarity of Chlorineatoms results in intermolecular attractions, thus increasing thetensile strength and modulus. The intermolecular attractions andoverall stiffness also increase the glass transition and meltingpoint of PVC.

Theimpact strength of PVC is higher when there is no notch but when thenotch depth increases gradually, the impact strength decreases. It isrelated to the reduction of the cross-sectional area of the testspecimen subjected to the impact in that the required energy to breakthe specimen decreases, and so does the impact strength. The impactstrength drops rapidly because of the effect of the notch thatconcentrates stresses at the notch point. The material is, therefore,sensitive to the presence of stress concentration points.

Nylon-66

Nylon66 is a tough, semi-crystalline polymer and finds a wide use inseveral areas of industry for load-bearing applications (Campo2008,p.45). Its resistance to abrasion and low surface friction makes itvery useful for gears, cams, and bearings. In the vehiclemanufacturing industry, it is used in door locks, filters, and balljoints, bearings in suspension and steering systems. Domestic usesinclude certain rail fittings, door furniture, food mixers and vacuumcleaners.

Glassfibers are sometimes added to Nylon 66 to improve its strength andstiffness. However, this compromises its elongation and toughness.Adding the glass fiber also leads to improved dimensional stability.Applications of this glass-filled nylon are the same as those of theunfilled grade, but this has an added advantage of being used athigher levels of stress, or under conditions that require creepresistance.

HDPEand LDPE

Thelow-density polyethylene (LDPE) is made up of branched polymer chainsmaking largely amorphous. Its density is approximately 0.92, with amelting temperature of 115°C. The advantages of the LDPE include lowcost, flexible at temperatures below –120°C, highly tough andbeing chemically inert to several liquids and solids. Its primaryapplications are therefore in packaging, toys, house wares andelectrical insulation.

High-densitypolyethylene (HDPE) is highly crystalline when compared tolow-density grade. It results in improved strength and stiffness. Ithas a density of approximately 0.96 and melts at 135°C. Theseimproved mechanical properties, together with chemical inertness andits ability to resist permeation makes this type of polymer suitablefor blow molded containers, dustbins, milk crates, tissue film, pipeand structural panels(Fink and Thomas 2010, p.43)

Comparisonof the properties

Thefollowing tables rank the material according to the individualtensile properties

Material

Elastic Modulus (E)

Ultimate strength, Rm

Elongation at break, Ebreak

Effect of strain rate

Acetals

3.037

67.04

30%

Elastic modulus increases proportionally and falls gradually after yield

PVC

3579.69

58.64

12.15%

Elastic Modulus increases rapidly to yield point and again fall rapidly

Nylon 66

917.6

46.97

121%

Strain rate increases Elastic modulus rapidly to yield point. It continues to increase gradually until the specimen breaks

LPDE

550

10.1

180%

Elastic modulus increases proportionally to strain rate and gradually after yield

HDPE

360

26.2

&gt480%

Elastic Modulus increases rapidly with strain and falls after yield

Impactresistance

Material

Impact (KJ/m2

Variation

Implication on Reliability

Nylon 66

101.75

1.97

Low impact resistance but the material is reliable

Nylon

90.9

34.46

Considerably low impact resistance and low reliability

Polycarbonate

62.55

8.9

Considerably reliable though with low impact resistance

HDPE

48.96

21.46

Not very reliable and has a considerable impact resistance

Acetal

14.68

13.28

Good impact resistance but Somehow reliable

PVC

6.7

33.97

Good impact resistance but Not reliable

Conclusion

Acetalshave the highest tensile strength values while PVC has the highestvalue of elastic modulus and 0.2% offset yield stress. On impactresistance, both the PVC and the Acetals have the lowest values,meaning they both have good impact resistance properties. However,PVC has a higher value of variation that implies that it is notreliable when compared to Acetal. The good mechanical properties ofthe PVC and the Acetal are attributed to their structure. PVC ishighly amorphous, and the size of chlorine atoms causes notableintermolecular interface, and the polarity of Chlorine atoms resultsin intermolecular attractions, thus increasing the tensile strengthand modulus (Biron 2007, p.19). Acetalsare high crystalline and have an excellent balance of properties thatbridge the gap between metals and plastics. They have the beststrength and stiffness properties of thermoplastics.

References

BIRON,M. (2007). Thermoplasticsand thermoplastic composites: Technical information for plasticsusers.Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

CAMPO,E. A. (2008). Selectionof Polymeric Materials How to Select Design Properties from DifferentStandards.Burlington, Elsevier.http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=428609.

FINK,J. K., Thomas, S., &amp P, M. V. (2010). Handbookof engineering and specialty thermoplastics.Hoboken: Wiley.

MARK,H. F. (2007). Encyclopediaof polymer science and technology.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&ampscope=site&ampdb=nlebk&ampdb=nlabk&ampAN=653335.

RÖSLER,J., HARDERS, H., &amp BÄKER, M. (2007). Mechanicalbehaviour of engineering materials: Metals, ceramics, polymers, andcomposites.Berlin: Springer.

SHAH,V., &amp SHAH, V. (2007). Handbookof plastics testing and failure analysis.Hoboken, N.J, Wiley-Interscience.

Appendix1: Results

Tensiletest date:

EngineeringMaterials Acetal 22-10-10

c/hspeed 1. 500 mm/min, 2. 50 mm/min, 3. 10 mm/min

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

MPa

J

J

MPa

%

%

1

10.49

3.06

32.1

31.08

3150.17

67.33

9.27

15.88

69.42

9.98

15.96

2

9.09

3.03

27.54

36.79

2645.92

57.35

6.51

34.90

67.04

8.38

40.58

3

10.22

3.02

30.86

28.73

3334.35

57.14

7.49

32.51

64.12

8.98

35.13

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

n = 3

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

Mean, x

9.933

3.037

30.17

32.20

3043.48

Standard deviation, s

0.7427

0.02082

2.357

4.14

356.40

Coefficient of variation % 

7.48

0.69

7.81

12.87

11.71

EngineeringMaterials PVC 22-10-10

c/hspeed 1. 500 mm/min, 2-3. 50 mm/min, 4. 10 mm/min

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

MPa

J

J

MPa

%

%

1

10.18

2.97

30.23

34.39

3559.05

35.46

2.32

8.71

62.49

3.51

12.15

2

9.67

3.02

29.2

34.57

3632.55

32.40

2.08

3.91

59.54

3.39

5.51

3

9.81

2.97

29.14

35.08

3464.68

30.47

1.94

9.75

58.64

3.05

15.20

4

9.95

3.02

30.05

34.68

3662.48

33.24

1.86

47.88

56.97

3.03

86.17

2.maybe a defect at the fracture face

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

n = 4

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

Mean, x

9.902

2.995

29.66

34.68

3579.69

Standard deviation, s

0.2175

0.02887

0.5671

0.29

88.13

Coefficient of variation %, 

2.20

0.96

1.91

0.85

2.46

7ET016Nylon 66 (Ertalon) 13-10-10

c/hspeed: 1. 10 mm/min, 2. 50 mm/min, 3. 500 mm/min.

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

MPa

J

J

MPa

%

%

1

9.69

3.17

30.72

9.40

917.60

39.55

89.78

90.46

47.63

139.39

140.27

2

9.69

3.17

30.72

9.62

965.01

38.47

18.40

77.14

43.91

32.66

121.44

3

9.58

3.16

30.27

10.20

877.22

39.51

17.80

59.16

46.97

30.16

91.63

7ET016LDPE 27-10-11

1.50 mm/min 2. 500 mm/min

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

N/mm²

kN/mm²

N/mm²

Nmm

Nmm

N/mm²

%

%

1

10.13

3.95

40.01

5.39

0.05

8.72

38815.13

42328.20

9.81

160.20

173.08

2

10.01

4

40.04

5.57

0.06

9.95

30302.58

54586.44

10.35

119.88

204.17

7ET016HDPE 13-10-11

3.50 mm/min 4. 500 mm/min

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

N/mm²

kN/mm²

N/mm²

Nmm

Nmm

N/mm²

%

%

3

10.13

3.09

31.3

15.70

0.35

6527.08

25.20

16.48

+480%

4

10.01

3.02

30.23

17.35

0.38

13.68

6330.97

20019.40

27.58

15.57

44.77

Lc Emod Fmax dL(plast.)at F{max} dL at F{max} F{Break} dL at break a{0} b{0} S{0}

Nr mm GPa MPa % % MPa % mm mm mm²

1 75 3.18 50.3 2.3 3.8 25.3 11.8 3.49 9.77 34.10

2 75 2.55 50.3 2.6 4.6 27.5 13.2 3.44 10.36 35.64

3 75 3.25 51.2 2.1 3.7 10.2 13.3 3.48 9.85 34.28

4 75 3.01 45.1 2.0 3.5 9.01 22.8 3.465 9.93 34.41

5 75 3.03 43.9 2.0 3.5 8.77 15.9 3.47 10.75 37.30

6 75 3.09 43.5 1.9 3.3 15.7 46.6 3.48 10 34.80

PVC24-03-2105

4ET002PC 29-10-10

c/hspeed 1. 500 mm/min, 2. 50 mm/min, 3. 10 mm/min

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

MPa

J

J

MPa

%

%

1

9.65

3.01

29.05

37.50

2309.78

51.84

3.71

3.50

68.16

5.67

5.31

2

9.62

3.01

28.96

34.49

2279.43

46.19

4.05

4.92

64.61

5.85

6.90

3

9.63

3.01

28.99

35.41

2215.93

45.97

3.91

17.59

63.00

5.81

25.08

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

S0

Rp 0.2

E-Modulus

RB

W up to Fmax.

W up to break

Rm

Fmax.

 Break

n = 3

mm

mm

mm²

MPa

MPa

MPa

J

J

MPa

%

%

x

9.633

3.01

29

35.80

2268.38

48.00

3.89

8.67

65.26

5.78

12.43

s

0.01528

0.000

0.04598

1.54

47.89

3.33

0.17

7.76

2.64

0.09

10.99

0.16

0.00

0.16

4.31

2.11

6.93

4.38

89.45

4.04

1.64

88.37

Impacttest date: Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .13thOct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

Acetal

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

23

16

2.57

41.12

0.64

8.54

15.58

Charpy

7.50

24

15.9

2.59

41.18

0.58

7.79

14.19

Charpy

7.50

25

16.1

2.57

41.38

0.34

4.58

8.30

Charpy

7.50

26

16.01

2.58

41.31

0.55

7.39

13.42

Charpy

7.50

27

16.1

2.56

41.22

0.60

8.06

14.67

Charpy

7.50

28

16.07

2.58

41.46

0.54

7.19

13.01

Charpy

7.50

29

15.25

2.58

39.34

0.55

7.32

13.95

Charpy

7.50

30

15.78

2.56

40.4

0.74

9.89

18.36

Charpy

7.50

31

15.48

2.55

39.47

0.86

11.45

21.75

Charpy

7.50

32

15.99

2.62

41.89

0.57

7.59

13.59

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 10

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

15.87

2.576

40.88

0.60

7.98

14.68

7.50

s

0.2872

0.01955

0.8577

0.14

1.80

3.52

0.00

1.81

0.76

2.10

22.56

22.56

23.97

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .Friday22-Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

Acetal

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

11

16.05

2.84

45.58

0.60

8.06

13.26

Charpy

7.50

12

16.06

2.87

46.09

0.88

11.76

19.14

Charpy

7.50

13

16.09

2.87

46.18

0.71

9.53

15.48

Charpy

7.50

14

15.95

2.83

45.14

0.65

8.68

14.42

Charpy

7.50

15

15.94

2.85

45.43

0.61

8.20

13.54

Charpy

7.50

16

15.94

2.82

44.95

0.70

9.32

15.55

Charpy

7.50

17

15.98

2.86

45.7

0.77

10.33

16.95

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 7

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

16

2.849

45.58

0.71

9.41

15.48

7.50

s

0.06362

0.01952

0.4563

0.10

1.30

2.06

0.00

0.40

0.69

1.00

13.86

13.86

13.28

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .Friday22 Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

HDPE

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

1

15.7

3.07

48.2

2.53

33.69

52.42

Charpy

7.50

2

15.7

3.01

47.26

2.06

27.40

43.49

Charpy

7.50

3

15.77

2.85

44.94

1.71

22.76

37.98

Charpy

7.50

4

15.97

2.84

45.35

2.81

37.46

61.94

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 4

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

15.79

2.942

46.44

2.27

30.33

48.96

7.50

s

0.1277

0.1153

1.547

0.49

6.53

10.51

0.00

0.81

3.92

3.33

21.54

21.54

21.46

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .13th Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

Nylon

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

12

15.94

2.69

43.41

4.61

61.52

106.30

Charpy

7.50

13

15.93

2.71

43.17

4.58

61.00

105.98

Charpy

7.50

14

15.93

2.71

43.17

4.40

58.68

101.95

Charpy

7.50

15

16.1

2.73

43.95

5.16

68.84

117.47

Charpy

7.50

16

16.04

2.95

47.32

2.17

28.89

45.79

Charpy

7.50

17

16.05

2.68

43.01

1.20

16.04

27.97

Charpy

7.50

18

16.04

2.67

42.83

4.82

64.21

112.45

Charpy

7.50

19

15.83

2.66

42.11

3.05

40.65

72.40

Charpy

7.50

20

15.95

2.76

44.02

5.04

67.25

114.57

Charpy

7.50

21

16.05

2.75

44.14

4.60

61.31

104.18

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 10

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

15.99

2.731

43.71

3.96

52.84

90.90

7.50

s

0.08235

0.08373

1.409

1.35

18.00

31.32

0.00

0.52

3.07

3.22

34.07

34.07

34.46

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .Friday22 Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

Nylon66

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

6

16.15

3

48.45

4.81

64.10

99.23

Charpy

7.50

7

16.1

2.95

47.5

4.95

65.94

104.13

Charpy

7.50

8

16.04

3

48.12

4.91

65.43

101.98

Charpy

7.50

9

16.11

3.02

48.65

4.95

65.94

101.65

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 4

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

16.1

2.992

48.18

4.90

65.35

101.75

7.50

s

0.04546

0.02986

0.5062

0.07

0.87

2.01

0.00

0.28

1.00

1.05

1.33

1.33

1.97

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .Friday22 Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

Polycarbonate

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

24

15.9

2.865

45.55

3.11

41.40

68.16

Charpy

7.50

26

16.07

2.83

45.48

2.79

37.25

61.43

Charpy

7.50

27

16.02

2.83

45.34

2.57

34.31

56.76

Charpy

7.50

28

15.81

2.88

45.53

3.12

41.61

68.54

Charpy

7.50

29

16.02

2.86

45.82

2.65

35.35

57.87

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 5

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

15.96

2.853

45.54

2.85

37.98

62.55

7.50

s

0.1064

0.02225

0.1748

0.25

3.38

5.57

0.00

0.67

0.78

0.38

8.91

8.91

8.90

0.00

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .Friday22 Oct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

PVC

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

18

16.04

2.85

45.71

0.34

4.58

7.51

Charpy

7.50

19

16.06

2.86

45.93

0.20

2.62

4.28

Charpy

7.50

20

15.97

2.93

46.79

0.34

4.53

7.26

Charpy

7.50

21

15.95

2.87

45.78

0.42

5.66

9.27

Charpy

7.50

22

16.03

2.87

46.01

0.36

4.76

7.76

Charpy

7.50

23

16.08

2.9

46.63

0.19

2.57

4.13

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 6

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

16.02

2.88

46.14

0.31

4.12

6.70

7.50

s

0.05115

0.02966

0.4566

0.09

1.25

2.06

0.00

0.32

1.03

0.99

30.34

30.34

30.70

0.00

=

Zwick/RoellPendulum Impact Tester .13thOct 2010

M/c Model No 5113.

Ref No A466690.

Force 7.5J

PVC

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Type of test, PIT

Work contents

Legends

Nr

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

1

15.72

2.48

38.99

0.27

3.62

6.96

Charpy

7.50

2

16.04

2.47

39.62

0.50

6.67

12.63

Charpy

7.50

3

16.03

2.48

39.75

0.25

3.35

6.32

Charpy

7.50

4

16.08

2.5

40.2

0.23

3.03

5.65

Charpy

7.50

5

16.12

2.48

39.98

0.30

4.01

7.52

Charpy

7.50

6

16.15

2.54

41.02

0.21

2.82

5.16

Charpy

7.50

7

16.13

2.57

41.45

0.16

2.17

3.93

Charpy

7.50

8

16

2.52

40.32

0.31

4.07

7.57

Charpy

7.50

9

15.98

2.54

40.59

0.28

3.79

7.00

Charpy

7.50

10

15.97

2.5

39.93

0.39

5.23

9.82

Charpy

7.50

Series

Specimen width b0

Specimen thickness a0

Cross-section

Impact energy

Impact energy

Impact resistance

Work contents

n = 10

mm

mm

mm²

J

%

kJ/m²

J

x

16.02

2.508

40.18

0.29

3.88

7.26

7.50

s

0.1236

0.03327

0.7108

0.10

1.28

2.47

0.00

0.77

1.33

1.77

33.07

33.07

33.97

0.00