LAB REPORT Author Last Name 1
Protozoansare broad class of organisms that are unicellular eukaryotes. Theyare usually of different shapes and sizes. These organisms can livein multiple environments including soil, fresh waters and marineenvironments.Giardialambliais a protozoan, it has been discussed in the following paragraphs(Albert et al., 2013).
Giardialambliawas renamed so after Cercomonasintestinalis in1859 in memory of Progessor A. Giard of Paris and Dr F Lambl fromPrague (Ortega & Adam, 1997).
Thetaxonomic description for Giardialambliais Kingdom: Protozoa Phylum: Sarcomastigophora Class:Zoomastigophora Order: Diplomonadida Family: Hexamitidae Genus:Giardia Species: Giardialamblia (Ortega& Adam, 1997).
Thelife cycle of the Giardialambliastarts with excretion of cysts through feces of an infected person.The cyst is hard as a way of offering protection to environmentalconditions such as heat or extreme low temperature. The cysts arecharacteristic of four nuclei and a retracted cytoplasm. Atrophozoite emerges after the ingestion of a cyst. The trophozoitelacks a peripheral chromatin but has huge karyosomes. The trophozoitefeeds and undergoes binary fission resulting in the formation of morecysts and trophozoites that are again passed into feces (Ortega &Adam, 1997).
Cystshave an oval shape and they are thin walled with about a width ofabout 15 micrometers in length and 0.4 micrometers in thickness. Thetrophozoites look like a teardrop and measure around 1 micrometer inthickness and 14 micrometers in length (Ortega & Adam, 1997).
Theinfective stage of the Giardialambiais during the cysts stage of their life cycle. As few as 10 cysts canlead to an infection after ingestion of contaminated food or water.Entry of the cysts into the stomach and duodenum results to formationof trophozoites under to influence of changes in pH (Ortega &Adam, 1997).
Infectionsin Giardialambliaare mostly asymptomatic. Those patients that will exhibit symptomswill present a sudden and watery diarrhea, fever, chills, abdominalpain. The diarrhea in this case has a foul smell but there is noblood, gas or mucus in it. These symptoms, however disappear in thefirst six weeks. However chronic diarrhea can lead to dehydration andweigh loss (Ortega & Adam, 1997).
Aboutthree stool collections are done because Giardia cysts are excretedmainly in feces. The collection is done on separate days so as toincrease the sensitivity. The examination of the cysts can be donemicroscopically. The characteristic feature of the cysts is theretracted cytoplasm. The Rapid Chromatographic Cartridge assay canalso be used. To detect the types of Giardia present, the PolymeraseChain Reaction is used.
Thereis variation in the concentration of the cysts in feces henceimmunoassay methods that are more specific should be employed (Ortega& Adam, 1997).
Alsodiagnosis can be done by White Blood Cell count where high levels ofwhite blood cell are indicative of Giardialambliainfection.
Treatmentfor giardiasis involves a therapy with antibiotics. Metronidazole isthe widely used antibiotic for this condition. For the patients withdiarrhea, electrolyte management in the body is crucial. People inthe endemic and non endemic areas should also be treated. The peopleliving with the infected individuals should also be examined (Ortega& Adam, 1997).
TheGiardialambliahas been found in various wild and domestic animals that act asintermediate hosts. The disease has high prevalence in Sydney,Australia (Ortega & Adam, 1997).
Thecase study in this condition is a 15 year old girl is presented to alocal hospital. She complains of epigastric pains, watery diarrheaand weight loss. The girl also states that she doesn’t pass bloodin her feces. Doctors in the local health facility collect stools andupon examination through microscopy, cysts are identified. This islater confirmed by the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction. Upon furtherinvestigation, it was realized that the girl drinks untreated water.At the laboratory examination, Giardiasis is diagnosed. The girl wastreated with by administration of Metronidazole. She is advised totake treated food and to adhere to proper hygiene conditions. Hercondition is now okay and she has regained her normal body weight
Helminthsare multicellular organisms that can be seen with naked eyes whenthey are mature. They are commonly referred to as parasitic worms.They live and feed on hosts and also depend on them for protection.However, this dependence can lead to challenges in nutrientschallenge and eventual development of diseases in the affectedorganisms. Taeniasoliumhas been discussed below (Greenwood et al., 2012).
Thescientific name is Taeniasolium. Commonnames for Taeniasoliumare Pork Tapeworm and Cysticercosis.
Thedescriptive classification of Taeniasolium isKingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Platyhelminthes, Class: Cestoda, Order:Cyclophyllidea, Family: Taeniidae, Genus: Taemia, Species: Taeniasolium
Anadult Taeniasoliumhas a length of about 3 meters but sometimes can be as long as 8meters. It is usually white in color and flattened to form the shapeof almost that of a ribbon. The adult has a head having a scolex thatit uses to attach to the intestinal walls. The entire body of anadult Taeniasoliumhas a tegument.
Thelarvae have different shapes, one is fluid filled and looks like abladder, and another has a scolex while the last type has no scolex.
Thedefinitive host for Taeniasoliumis humans. The larval stage of this helminth is responsible fordevelopment of infections. Pigs are usually the intermediate hosts ofthe parasite while humans are the secondary hosts. This occursaccidentally when they ingest embryonated eggs (Nakao et al., 2012).
Theentry of the helminthes into individuals is through ingestion ofcontaminated food or water. Contamination in this case is ingestionof embryonated eggs of the tapeworm or taking parts of the tapewormcalled proglottids (Nakao et al., 2012).
Thisinfection is almost asymptomatic. However, in severe cases, theaffected individuals can complain of intestinal irritation and lossof appetite, there is also dizziness, seizures and headaches. Thepatients also show blockade of the intestines and digestive problems(Nakao et al., 2012).
Diagnosisof the Taeniasoliumis by examination of the feces of infected individuals for thepresence of adult tapeworms. Proglottids can also be examined if theyare present in the stools. In confirmation of the results aperipheral blood smear is done. Also a total white blood cell countis done. A rise in the level of white blood cells indicates aparasitic infection for the Taeniasolium (Nakaoet al., 2012).
Mostpatients for this condition are usually not symptomatic. When theadult tapeworms are detected in stools, antihelmithic drugs can beadministered. This is a challenging therapy because there are hardlyany symptoms. Praziquantel, Albendazole are administered.Surgery canalso be done if the condition leads to the development of obstructedbile flow or even appendicitis (Nakao et al., 2012).
Apartfrom the drugs, treatment is also enhanced by proper hygiene andsanitation and ensuring that pork is cooked properly. Personalhygiene such as washing hands before eating are the basic andeffective measures of ensuring that the condition doesn’t pass onto individuals (Nakao et al., 2012).
Thisdisease is found most commonly in the cosmopolitan regions. Thecompletion of the cycle occurs where humans live with pigs and alsoin areas where ingestion of improperly cooked pork is common (Nakaoet al., 2012).High prevalence however has been reported in Mexico andin the United States. Those areas where hygiene levels are below theexpected have witnessed the high levels of the condition.
Acase study for this can be shown when a 50 year old man living in anurban center visits a health facility. He presents to the clinicfeatures of anemia, weight loss, decreased appetite, minor headachesand seizure. At the first test, the clinicians suspect that the manhas malaria but the malarial parasites are not present in theperipheral blood smears. On further examination, the doctors findadult Taeniasoliumin the feces. A number of proglottids are also identified in the samestool. The patient is given appropriate antihelminthes includingAlbendazole and Praziquantel. Three months later, the man regains hisnormal body weight. The signs of anemia disappear and his appetitefor food returns to normal. The man is requested to visit the healthfacility after three months. Examination for the parasites is donewhich turns negative. The man is advised to take properly cooked porkand to wash his hands well before eating.
Alberts,B., Bray, D., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., … &Walter, P. (2013). Essentialcell biology.Garland Science.
Greenwood,D., Slack, R. C., Barer, M. R., & Irving, W. L. (2012). MedicalMicrobiology: A Guide to Microbial Infections: Pathogenesis,Immunity, Laboratory Diagnosis and Control. With STUDENT CONSULTOnline Access.Elsevier Health Sciences.
Nakao,M., Okamoto, M., Sako, Y., Yamasaki, H., Nakaya, K., & Ito, A.(2002). A phylogenetic hypothesis for the distribution of twogenotypes of the pig tapeworm Taenia soliumworldwide. Parasitology, 124(06),657-662.
Ortega,Y. R., & Adam, R. D. (1997). Giardia: overview andupdate. Clinicalinfectious diseases,545-549.