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Question1World War and Social Revolt
TheMexican and Russian revolution transformed the politics and societyin both nations. In the early 20th century, the liberal order definedby nationalism, capitalism and industrialization reached a point ofcrisis. A growing civil unrest in both countries erupted into openrevolt and violence witnessed in World War 1. The revolution was as aresult of failure to find a suitable presidential succession leadingto a political crisis among the competing elites in both countries.The Russian revolution aimed to end the imperial rule while theMexican revolution ended the Diaz regime through political rebellion.
Industrializationbrought many changes to warfare. Europe made more weapons alteringthe fighting of wars. The industrial revolution had significantlyenhanced Europe’s strength. However, Russia, Japan, and NorthAmerican states also gained more power, bringing to an end theEuropean’s claim to civilized superiority. The new technologiesevolved to bring high death rates. Increased firepower forced moretroops to war. Improved artillery increased the destructiveness inbattlefields. Countries used planes to launch attacks instead ofsurveying. Also, the use of toxic gasses led to the death ofmillions.
Question2TheInterwar Years and World War II
Thegreat depression caused the emergence of visions of modernity:liberalism, authoritarianism, and anti-colonialism. The liberalismthat advocated for capitalism and democracy suffered from the greatdepression due to the collapse of economies. However, granting morepower to state ensured the survival of liberalism. People challengedthe assumptions of European cultural, moral, and material dominanceby demonstrating how states relied on their populations. Alliancesbetween different nations also crippled Europe’s cultural, moraland material superiority and dominance.
Americansleaders focused on the markets that were free from governmentinterference. America also sought to secure the support of minoritygroups by advocating for the same rights to prosperity between thewhites and the blacks through the Civil Rights Movements. The U.Sprovided liberal capitalism and increased rights for all to try andfight European extremism. Roosevelt instituted a new deal to providea safety net and welfare programs for the destitute Americans.