Alsoknown as human herpes virus, Herpes Simplex Virus is classified intohuman herpes virus 1 and 2. Herpes simplex virus 2 belongs to familyherpes viral. It is ubiquitous and contagious in nature since itattacks human being specifically the genital organs. Herpes simplexvirus-2 type is the one that causes genital herpes. The disease doesnot have cured thou it does not kill, but one becomes the carrier ofthe disease. Compared to type 1, it is highly contiguous since itspread faster not only through sexual intercourse but also throughcontact. And to this scenario is skin-to-skin contact. Since thevirus dies rapidly outside the body, therefore, it is impossible forthe disease to spread through contact with toilets, towels, and otherobjects (Balchand Phyllis 2010).
Herpesvirus is a double-stranded DNA virus. The DNA genome is usuallyencased in an icosahedral protein cage known as the capsid that isusually wrapped in a lipid bilayer called the envelope. The envelopeprotects the genes of the virus from being destroyed by mechanical orchemical factors before they enter the body. The genes encode avariety of protein that also involve in the formation of the capsid,tegument, and envelope. The genome of herpes simplex virus-2 iscomplex since it contains two regions that are long unique and shortunique regions. The transcription of the herpes simplex virus geneswas catalyzed by RNA polymerase II of the infected host (Fiebach etal. 2007)
Themain entry of herpes simplex visus-2 is through sex. It happens whendoing unprotected sex with someone who has the virus it is thendirectly transmitted to the other partner. Secondly, through thegenital surface that almost it can be through sex or other means.Thirdly, skin-to-skin contact can also transmit the virus. Other waysare through sore and fluids of someone infected with the virus.Herpes simplex virus-2 can be also transmitted from the skin in thegenital or anal areas that look normal. Finally, pregnant women whohave genital herpes can transmit herpes simplex virus-2 to theirinfants through contact during delivery 3 (Goldman and Hatch, 2000).
Thetransmission of the virus depends upon intimate, personal contact ofa susceptible seronegative individual. The virus must first come intocontact with mucosal surfaces or skin for the infection to beinitiated. The viral begun to replicate at the primary site ofinfection which resulted in latency. The virus, therefore, spread toepithelial cells and other organs resulting in the destruction ofcell and inflammation of pathways. Latent infection is thenestablished, but the patient may still shed the virus (Fiebach et al.2007).
Herpessimplex virus-2 often has no symptoms or mild symptoms that time gounrecognized. People mostly are unaware that they have the infection.But when symptoms occur, genital herpes is characterized by one ormore genital or anal blisters or open sore called ulcers. Some of thesymptoms of the disease include fever, body aches, and sometimesswollen lymph nodes. Lastly, people having HSV-2 experiencesensations of mild tingling, pain in the hips and buttocks (Fiebachet al. 2007).
HSV-2can be treated using antivirals such as acyclovir, famciclovir, andvalacyclovir. The antiviral help to reduce the severity and frequencybut cannot cure the infection. Those women who are pregnant and atthe same time infected with the virus are also advised to useantiviral to reduce the live hood of an outbreak of genital herpesduring delivery.
Sincethe antiviral does not cure, the best way to manage the disease bypreventing it from occurring. The methods are abstaining from thesexual activity while experiencing symptoms of genital herpes.Secondly by using a condom during sex and use of a vaccine or topicalmicrobicides can help reduce the risk of spreading. (Fiebach et al.2007)
Herpessimplex virus-2 over a period of years has been a major global healthconcern, with various negative health impacts. It has been also amajor cause of genital ulcers diseases. Therefore, it is likely tohave substantially contributed to HIV prevalence. Genital herpes alsohas a profound negative impact on the social and psychologicalwellness of individuals. Additionally, it has some challenges. Herpessimplex virus-2 and HIV influence each other in that it occurs 60-90%of people having HIV. Therefore, it increases the risks of acquiringnew HIV infection by approximately three-fold. The challenge gives abig hole to fight and eradicate it. To successfully prevent suchloophole, society should get tested and more important educated onthe effect of the virus and how to prevent it (Tulchinsky et al.2011).
Overa period, World Health Organization in cooperation with anothernon-governmental organization has been in the front line to fight itthrough research to develop new strategies for prevention and controlthe occurrence of herpes simplex virus-2 (Tulchinsky et al. 2011).
Thefollowing is a case study of a patient affected by the herpes virus.Roberta Patterson was a 26-old woman who presents for her firstprenatal visit. She was worried about her baby since her husbandFranklin had a history of Genital herpes history. When she reachedthe hospital, she states she was six weeks pregnant. She had nosymptoms of oral, vaginal herpes and other signs associated with theherpes virus. She had been diagnosed and treated for chlamydia sevenyears ago. The result also indicated no STD diagnoses reported(Tulchinsky et al. 2011).
Her26-old husband had his first episode of genital herpes during hislast year of high school but he no record of STD was reported. Also,her husband had not had visible Herpes Simplex Virus lesions sinceshe’s been sexually active with him and reported having had noprodromal symptoms or any symptom of the active disease. She had nosex partner other than her husband for the last 16 months (Goldmanand Hatch 2000).
Thephysical examination from the doctor indicated vital signs: bloodpressure112/68, pulse58, respiration of 13. Another outcome wasuterus consistent with a six-week pregnancy, normal vaginal examwithout signs of lesions or discharge and no lymphadenopathy.
Fromthe case study, one may ask it is important to test for her to go andtest for the presence of . Does the virusaffect the child? Of course, it affects. She wanted to safeguard thelife of her baby from the virus. If she were found with, she wouldhave been given antiviral drugs not to cure the disease but to reduce(Tulchinsky et al. 2011).
Toconclude, is one of the dangerous like anothervirus. Therefore, everyone should take cautious and to fight it.Since the disease does not have a cure, it is important for one toprevent it such as abstaining, using condoms to prevent the spread ofthe virus. The society also needs basic awareness of the virus. Suchprecaution will minimize the spread of the HSV-2 (Goldman and Hatch2000).
BalchP. 2010. Prescription for nutritional healing, Fourth edition NewYork: Avery. p. 483-485
FiebachN, Barker L, Burton J, Zieve P. 2007. Principles of ambulatorymedicine, Seventh Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. p. 540
GoldmanM, Hatch M. 2000. Prescription for nutritional healing. In: Women andHealth. San Diego, California: Academic Press. p. 311–321
TulchinskyT, Varavikova E, Bickford J, Fielding J. 2011. The new public health,Third edition. San Diego, Academic press. p. 219