Health Assessment Unit 8


HealthAssessment Unit 8

Evaluationfor a health promotion program

Healthcare promotion aims at increasing the health determinant controlamong individuals. Health care promotion among children with specialneeds involves all initiatives that are aimed at ensuring that thecommunity is empowered through increased access to sustainable,equitable and holistic health care services. Evaluation of a healthcare promotion initiative is necessary in order to determine theoutcome of the program. There are a variety of reasons that makeshealth promotion programs evaluation necessary. These reasons formthe foundation of the evaluation programs adopted in the evaluationprocess. Evaluation of health promotion is necessary in thedevelopment of effective interventions. Therefore, the evolutionshould focus on the impacts of the promotion, relative to the healthcare needs. Additionally, the evaluation should be aimed at sharinggood practices in health promotion and prudent use of limitedresources. The evaluation should also focus on the feedbacks of theparticipant in order to identify the success and failures of theprograms as well as providing information for development andimplementation of appropriate health care policies (Windsor, 2015).

Roleof formative research in health assessment

Formativeassessment in health care promotion programs are designed to promotethe effectiveness of the program in promoting health outcomes.Formative assessments allows participating health care workers andthe subject (for example special needs children and their families)to give continuous feedback which allows the program to be altereddepending on the results at every stage. Formative assessment ofhealth promotion program plays an important role. It increased theachievement of the program through continuous improvement andadjustments. For example, the assessment can be done at predeterminedcycles which allows for improvement of the program (Windsor, 2015).

Roleof media advocacy

Mediaadvocacy in health promotion programs refers to the use of media inpromoting changing in the society and policies that promotes healthoutcomes. The mass media is a basic source of information to thepublic in the modern society. Due to its influence on publicperceptions, opinions and policy change agenda, media advocacy canplay an important role in promoting health outcomes among childrenwith special health needs. How the public understands an issue aswell as public opinions and attitudes are directly affected by howthe media covers the issue (Datta &amp Sabharwal, 2015). Any healthpromotion program should aim at using the mass media to increase itseffectiveness in enhancing the control over health care determinants.For example the media can be used to position issues affectingspecial health care needs children as a critical public health issuewhile advocating for individualistic and policy solution to thechallenges identified. If used effectively, media advocacy has thepower to change of children with special health needs are understoodand taken care of in the society. Additionally, it shifts the focusto decision makers, policy makers, the government and the health careindustry on the ability to promote the health care needs of thespecific population. However, it is important to note that manyhealth promotion programs do not have the funds to use the paid mediaexposure in media advocacy. This means that earned media such asletter to the editors, editorials and opinion columns articles aremore preferable. Corroboration with mainstream media as part of theircorporate social responsibility and use of social media are availableoptions.

Keyaspect in planning, assessment, and evaluation

Thereare basic aspects of health promotion program in the global settingthat have a direct significance on its success. This includes thedifferent aspects of planning, implementation and evaluation of theprogram. The need assessment is one of the most critical aspects ofhealth promotion planning. In this case, need assessment aims atidentifying the health care needs of special need children. Thisinvolves the identification of target community as well as communityconsultation. Another important aspect of promotion program planningis setting of the program’s goals, which must be specific,measurable, achievable, relevant, and time specific. These objectiveswill form the basis of program evaluation. A critical aspect of theimplementation phase of the health care promotion project isidentification of strategies that directly corresponds to theobjectives of the program (McKenzie, 2013). This includes individual,group, community, and population level strategies such as personalskills development, peer support and training, creation of supportiveenvironment in the community and campaigns for public opinion andpolicy change. Important aspects of the program evaluation includethe type of evaluation employed and the evolution methods used. Thereare four main types of promotion program evaluation. They includeformative evaluation, process evaluation, impacts evaluation andoutcome evaluation. Formative evaluation occurs at different stagesof the promotion program evaluation and aims at establishing thescope of the program and forms the basis for adjustments to increasethe effectiveness of the program. Process assessment also occursduring program implementation and identified how the targetedpopulation receives the health promotion program. The impactevaluation measures the short term impacts o f the program whileoutcome evaluation looks at the long term aspects of the program. Onthe other hand, there are various evaluation methods that can beused, which include polls, interviews, surveys, audits, trendsanalysis, case studies and technology aided methods (McKenzie, 2013).


Thereare many health challenges that face children with special needs.This is in addition to physical, cognitive and emotional challengesfaced by this population. The health promotion program aim atempowering the society, health care systems, families and individualsto improve health outcomes and their influence on health careservices determinants in relation to special health care needchildren. Health care assessment involves identification of thehealth care needs among special needs children. There are severalmethods that can be used in health care assessment. The methodemployed is determined by the nature of the targeted population andthe objectives of the program. One of the most appropriate methods ofhealth assessment is the use of epidemiology data to define specifichealth care needs (Lundy &amp Janes, 2015). Epidemiology data iscritical in identification of unmet and important health care needsin a given population. Health care demands among special needschildren can also be used in the assessment of their health needs.However, it is important to note that demand is influenced by theavailability of services. The assessment should involve discussionsand interviews with stakeholders and participants and meeting thetarget population to identity the community and stakeholders’interests as well as identify the resources available. Special needschildren are faced with numerous health care challenges that can betargeted by a health promotion programs. Thus, identifying thepriorities based on severity, possible interventions, and agreementwith the stakeholders is an important step in health needs assessment(Lundy &amp Janes, 2015).


Datta,S. S. &amp Sabharwal, J. R. (2015).The Role of Media in Oral HealthPromotion-Media Advocacy and Dental Public Health. IndianJournal of Dental Education.8(1), 21-26

Lundy,K. &amp Janes, S. (2015). Communityhealth nursing: caring for the public`s health,Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

McKenzie,J. et al (2013). Planning,implementing, &amp evaluating health promotion programs: a primer.San Francisco, Calif.: Pearson Education.

Windsor,R. (2015). Evaluationof health promotion and disease prevention and management programs:improving population health through evidenced-based practice,Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.