Giardia lamblia

Giardialamblia

Protozoaare unicellular organisms. They are classified as a single organismwith animal-like behavior. They are usually of different shapes andsize. Therefore, they can live in a different environmental conditionsuch soil, freshwater and marine. Our study focuses on Giardialamblia. It belongs to Kingdom Protozoa phylum sarcomas Igo horaclass zoomastigophora family Hexamitidae Genus: Giardia andspecies: lamblia (Ortega &amp Adam, 1997).

Itis a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes and reproduces inthe small intestine hence, causing giardiasis. In the smallintestine, it normally attaches itself to the epithelium by a ventraladhesive disc there reproduce by binary fusion. Funny enough, theparasite does not spread to other parts of the body. It usuallyremains in the lumen where it colonizes are reproduces in largenumber. Therefore in the lumen it siphons nutrients causing stomachulcers and other conditions (Ortega &amp Adam, 1997).

Thelife cycle starts with noninfective cysts that are normally excretedwith the feces of an infected individual. Cysts are hardly destroyedsince it is provided with protection from the various degrees of heatand cold. It makes a distinguished characteristic of the cysts. Oncethe cysts are ingested by the host, trophozoites develop to an activestate of feeding and mobility, trophozoites stage is one of theactive stages of the life cycle of lamblia since, during this stage,a lot of nutrients are consumed. After the feeding stage,trophozoite, therefore, undergoes asexual replication, and it`sthrough binary fission. Cysts and trophozoites do not enter into theblood stream. Therefore, they are not transferred to another part ofthe body. They are passed through the digestive system in the feces.Outside the body, trophozoites die since they cannot survive harshenvironmental condition. Therefore, cysts are one that will betransferred to another organism. The cycle then repeats it, andtransmission continues from one organism to another (Albert et al.,2013).

Whenwe examine the morphology of trophozoites and cysts, it`s easy totell the distinguishing features. For instance, trophozoites arelarge karyosomes, and they lack peripheral chromatin. It, therefore,gives the two nuclei a halo appearance. Cysts on the other hands aredistinguished by a retracted cytoplasm. Lamblia, therefore, lacksmitochondrion thou the discovery of mitochondrial remnants made iteasy to identify Giardia (Greenwood et al., 2012)

Inthe life cycle of Giardia, the infective stage is the cyst. This isbecause the cyst can withstand harsh condition such as heat, cold,desiccation and environmental condition. This characteristic,therefore, makes them be transferred from one organism to another.The other reason that makes cysts an infected stage is its smallsize. Organisms can eat them without destroying it hence it passes tothe small intestine where it begins to replicate (Ortega &amp Adam,1997).

Theyare various vector or route where cysts are transferred from oneorganism to another. One is through dirty food or unwashed food,uncooked food, Tsetse fly that carries cysts from the toilet to food,failure to wash hands from the toilet. When such conditions are notmaintained, cysts will be transmitted from one organism to another.Therefore, the best way to prevent such is through maintainingpersona hygiene (Greenwood et al., 2012).

Infectionof usually ranges from asymptomatic to severediarrhea. In the case of asymptomatic infection, there is acontinuation of transmission of the parasite as numerous cysts areproduced from the small intestine. But an individual who is affectedby diarrheic stools are passed out, and they carry trophozoites thatat long run won’t survive in the environment. When comes to Giardialamblia, they do not penetrate the intestinal wall, but instead theyusual cause inflammation and, therefore, shortening of the villi inthe small intestine. The increase in some trophozoites leads todirect physical blockage of nutrients supply especially the vitalVitamin B12 which is important to the cells. Some of the symptomsthat are as a result of lamblia are diarrhea. Nausea and flatulence,tiredness, loss of weight, loss of appetite and stomach ache. Suchcondition when not attended to may cause severe pain and to evensometime it causes death to the patient (Ortega &amp Adam, 1997).

Whencome to a diagnosis, there are various methods that are used todiagnose. First is the identification of the cysts. Cysts aresediment out from the debris first before identified. Cysts,therefore, are identified by the use of a microscope at differentmagnification. Other methods used for identification of cyst includeRapid Chromatographic Cartridge assay and also one can opt to usePolymerase Chain Reaction. Diagnosis can also be done by white bloodcell count where a high level of white blood cell is indicative of infection. Last use of immune essay can also use inthe diagnosis of the disease. The purpose of diagnosis is todetermine whether or not there is the presence of before any treatment is administered (Greenwood et al., 2012)

Treatmentof giardiasis consists of antibiotic therapy. Some of the antibioticsused to are metronidazole that is the most commonly used antibioticfor this condition. Also appropriate fluid and electrolyte managementare the keys particularly to those affected with diarrhea. When comesto the asymptomatic individual, treatment is not administered to themespecially those who excrete the organism, except to preventhousehold transmission and also to allow adequate treatment of. On pregnant mother, the medication is notadministered since it affects the fetus. Apart from metronidazoleother antibodies are also used which include Quinacrine, Furazolidoneamong others (Greenwood et al., 2012)

Thereis also a point where the treatment fails. The patient normallydevelops post-Giardia lactose intolerance and present with symptomsconsistent with persistent infection. The patients usually improvewith time and also with introduction of lactose diet (Nakao etal.,2002)

Fromthe life cycle of , the definitive host is the pigsthat carry cysts, and they excrete to the environment where humanbeings ingest into the small intestine. Hence, it makes the humanbeing be the intermediate host of the disease. When such comes to avector as Tsetse fly human beings, and other domestic organism becomea definitive host, and the tsetse fly itself is the intermediatesince it carries the disease from one organism to another.

The has been found in various wild and domestic animalsthat act as intermediate hosts. The disease has a high prevalence inSydney, Australia (Ortega &amp Adam, 1997).

Thecase study in this condition is a 15-year-old girl is presented to alocal hospital. She complains of epigastria pains, watery diarrhea,and weight loss. The girl also states that she doesn’t pass bloodin her feces. Doctors in the local health facility collect stools andupon examination through microscopy, cysts are identified. This islater confirmed by the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction. Upon furtherinvestigation, it was realized that the girl drinks untreated water.At the laboratory examination, Giardiasis is diagnosed. The girl wastreated with by administration of Metronidazole. She is advised totake treated food and to adhere to proper hygiene conditions. Hercondition is now okay, and she has regained her normal body weight(Ortega &amp Adam, 1997).

Inconclusion, the disease is dangerous when in cooperated into theorganism. The only way to deal with is by practicing good hygiene.Hygiene practices such washing hands before every meal, washing foodbefore eating, food should be well cooked and maintaining goodenvironmental condition will enable eradicate the disease. From theresearch, the disease seems to affect the children mostly. Therefore,hygienic lessons should be also introduced to educate young childrenfrom accessing it through poor hygiene. It is also better for one toget tested and identify if he has or not. Early treatment will reducethe chance of one bed ridden. But if the disease is left to spread itcan cause death (Nakao et al.,2002)

Reference

Alberts,B., Bray, D., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., … &ampWalter, P. (2013).&nbspEssentialcell biology.Garland Science.

Greenwood,D., Slack, R. C., Barer, M. R., &amp Irving, W. L. (2012).&nbspMedicalMicrobiology: A Guide to Microbial Infections: Pathogenesis,Immunity, Laboratory Diagnosis and Control. With STUDENT CONSULTOnline Access.Elsevier Health Sciences

Ortega,Y. R., &amp Adam, R. D. (1997). Giardia: overview andupdate.&nbspClinicalinfectious diseases,545-549.

Nakao,M., Okamoto, M., Sako, Y., Yamasaki, H., Nakaya, K., &amp Ito, A.(2002). A phylogenetic hypothesis for the distribution of twogenotypes of the pig tapeworm worldwide.Parasitology, 124(06), 657-662.