# Environmental Issues

EnvironmentalIssues

Problem1

Hydraulicconductivity that is symbolized as K is usually a property ofvascular plants, soil, and rocks that describe the ease with which afluid and this case water can move through pore space. Normally itdepends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and also thedegree of saturation. Also, the density and viscosity of the fluidplay a big role in determining hydraulic conductivity.

Fromthe experiment that was done to determine the hydraulic conductivityof different types of soil (soil A and B) the data was as follows:

SoilA

Grainsize: 0.25mm-0.5mm

T1=45.8s

T2=50.0s

Calculation

K=(L/t)*In (H0/H1)

L=20cm

T=(50.0-45.8) s

=4.2s

=(20/4.2)*In (20/10)

=4.762*0.693

=3.3cm/s

SoilB

Grainsize: 0.5mm-1.0mm

T1=14.6s

T2=16.4s

Calculation

K=(L/t)*In (H0/H1)

L=20cm

T=(16.4-14.6) s

=(20/1.8)*In (20/10)

=11.111*0.693

=7.7cm/s

Fromresults obtained after calculation for the two different soil type ofcourse with different grain size, they have different hydraulicconductivity. For instance soil type A has a small grain size thatranges from 0.25mm-0.5mm. And its hydraulic conductivity was 3.3cm/s.it therefore gives rate at which water was absorbed in that soil. Dueto small pore size, the hydraulic conductivity of water, in thiscase, is lower. Small pores always have low penetrating power due tolimited space between the particles. Hence, the soil can hold waterfor a longer period.

Onother hand soil B when we look at the grain size and its hydraulicconductivity, it gives us the type of soil can be. Since the size ismuch larger, capillarity action is poor. Therefore, hydraulicconductivity is also poor.

Comparingresults and the grain size, the results are consistent with theexpectations based on the grain size. Small grain size will havelower hydraulic conductivity since particles are bonded together andthe space between the particles are small hence water will take alonger time to be drained. But when the grain size is larger, spacebetween particles seems to be larger, therefore hydraulicconductivity will be higher in the case.

Problem2

Adraining experiment was conducted to measure specific yield of thetwo soils (A and B)

SoilA

Amountof water drained: 35.5g

Calculation

SpecificYield= mass drained/ volume of soil

Massdrained=35.5g

Volumeof soil= 10 cm

Sy=35.5/10

=3.55g/cm

SoilB

Amountof water drained=76.0g

Calculation

SpecificYield=water drained/volume of soil

Volumeof soil=10cm

Waterdrained=76.0g

Sy=76.0/10

=7.6g/cm

Fromthe results obtained after calculation, there is a difference betweenthe specific yields of the two types of the soil. Soil A, forinstance, has lower specific yield than soil B. it, therefore,indicates that soil B is more productive compared to soil A. specificyield is also affected by the polarity of the soil. For instance whenthe soil is porous, the specific yield is lower but when the soil iscan at least hold water. Regarding production, the soil that normallyhas lower specific yield seems to be best for agriculture. And soilthat has higher specific yield can be classified as gravels.

Whenwe compare the results in response with grain size, the result isconsistent with the expectation based on the grain size. The smallerthe grain size will have lower specific yield and is the best foragriculture since it does not drain all water that is needed to beabsorbed by the plant. The soil with larger grain size will havelarger specific yield since it almost drain all water hence not bestfor agriculture purpose.

Inconclusion, the soil type has its characteristic that needs to bestudied first before one determines what the soil can be used for.