# Discussion

DISCUSSION 1

UniversityAffiliation

A reportincorporates a thorough representation of facts obtained fromdiligent research (Reid, 2012). In statistics, two conflictinghypothesis are set to serve as a point of reference. Furthermore, atest statistic is established as a determinant. The calculated valueof the test statistic is always compared with the tabulated value tohelp in decision-making. A particular significance level is used as aguide to inform the accuracy and dependability of obtained results(Taylor, 2013). In the cited example, the calculated value of thetest statistic is 1.38. The tabulated value of the test statistic at38 degrees of freedom and 0.2 level of significance is 1.304. Sincethe tabulated value is less than the calculated value, the reportneeds to reflect that the null hypothesis is rejected.

Tables are usedto represent sets of values in a column form. On the other hands,figures are primarily used to depict the relationship between sets ofvalues. Figures can be in the form of diagrams, graphs, maps, anddrawings. In a report, tables and figures are placed close to thesections where they are mentioned. Embedment into the text is doneintricately to avoid disrupting the flow of information. In someinstances, a reference to a figure or table is made in the wholetext. Under such a circumstance, the table or figure is placed on aseparate page at in the section of appendices (Reid, 2012). A reportendeavors to capture figures within the text while tables arerepresented in the end sections.

Validity refersto the reliability, accuracy and dependability of the conclusionsdrawn from sampling. Internal viability concerns the quality andaccuracy of the study while external viability pertains to the extentof generalization (Taylor, 2013). Both internal and external validitycan be increased through various means. Firstly, randomization servesto protect against bias or contamination in the selection of studyobjects. Moreover, replication involves repeating the study underdifferent circumstances. This usually includes a new set of subjects.Aggregation can also be used where different groups are combined forfield research. The researchers should also employ nonreactivemethods where the subjects are unaware of their participation(Taylor, 2013). Using such methods increases internal and externalvalidity.

References

Taylor, C. S. (2013). Validity and validation. Oxford,Mississippi: Oxford University Press.

Reid, M. (2012). Report writing. New York, NY: PalgraveMacmillan.