Culture Comparison



Egypt,Mesopotamia, and Greek are some ancient societies that are complexbut have similarities in some aspects. Mesopotamia is the land foundbetween the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. It has very fertile land.The most common name is modern day Iraq, but it could also be termedas Eastern Syria. The Nile Valley is a nutrient rich valley createdby the River Nile. The fertility is very essential to the Egyptian’ssurvival. The flow of The Nile is From Burundi. It flows slightlybelow the equator then through Egypt and eventually into theMediterranean. Very closely situated to Egypt is Ancient Greece. Thiscloseness facilitated easy trading. The main objective in this essayis to find out how different these three civilizations are. Thecomparison using features in their social and cultural structure,political and economic aspect as well as the diplomatic and themilitary aspect.

Socialand cultural structure

InGreece, there was too much male-dominance where men took over publiclife whereas women were left to care about private life at home.Women, however, were allowed to vote in 1957. They are now fullyrepresented in the world of business and even all government levels.There are equal inheritance rights to property as those of menalthough dowries are discouraged by the government. The philotimiconcept is unique to Greek social culture. It is representative of anotion by which Greeks, in society’s eyes, are viewed. This is forsocial duty and public honor. The notion is incorporative ofhospitality. According to Greeks, it is both a duty as well as aprivilege. When visiting, one should take to the host gifts likebouillon and sweets. Hosts are expected to retaliate with kindness.During social and cultural gatherings, there will be drinking, music,eating, dancing, and discussions that are lively but drunkenness isnever allowed. The main goal of such occasions is to relax and feelhappy collectively.

InEgypt, the most widely spoken and written language is Arabic. It isapplied by both Muslims and Christians found in Egypt though themajority of the residents are Muslims. The family, in Egypt, is theunit that is regarded as the most significant. In social relations, agreat role is played by kinship and nepotism is a positive practiceas it shows patronage of the family. The family unit is made up ofboth the extended and the nuclear family. The matter of social classis very evident in Egypt. When an Egyptian baby is born, his socialclass will govern his life opportunities and the life he lives everyday. One’s status in life is more based on the family backgroundthan wealth. Etiquette is regarded very highly in Egypt. Whenentering an Egyptian house, one first removes shoes. They should bedressed conservatively as appearances matter so much to Egyptians.Compliments should be given to the host concerning the house.

InMesopotamia, the social class is also very defined. A case thatclosely resembles the Egyptian social and cultural structure. At thebottom of the hierarchy, are slaves. They were however treated wellby their masters, but they had no rights as they were owned by thosewho were wealthy. They were identified by a specific haircut. Thesewere followed by the commoners who were also the laboring class. Theeducated class was known as the scribes. They were mainly the sons ofthose who were termed as wealthy and had the ability to read andwrite. To be labeled a scribe, men had to undergo some training andhad a specific program to complete. At the uppermost class ofsociety, were the priests. They were deemed to be the mostinfluential since religion was so important and the relationship theyhad with their gods had control over the agricultural sector. Theking was the pinnacle of the hierarchy. They were human beings butordained divinely. They were referred to as the ‘gods on earth’.

Politicaland economic structure

Egypthas one of the most developed and diversified economic structuresamong all African and countries in the Middle East. Its industrysector is vast. It is an important primary sector that is evolvingpretty fast as the service sector. Initially, agriculture was themainstay in the economy. It was overtaken due to the rapidindustrialization. The Egyptian political structure shows how thegovernment operates about the society. It is a republic with ademocratic system. The head of state is the president.

Greeceis a republic headed by the president. The Parliament of the Hellenesappoints the president who serves for a five-year term. The type ofeconomy present in Greece is the capitalist economy whereby theownership of capital is exclusively private.

Astate that is centralized was invented in Mesopotamia and kingshipscame to be. The main points of focus were cities and urban centers.Kingly dynasties passed down leadership. With the development ofculture, the city states became kingdoms. Mesopotamia was the firstproducer of crop surpluses. The labor freed could be used in buildingmonuments and cities. Mesopotamians are better known as the firstgreat accountants in the world.


Thepolitical and economic structures can as well explain the democracyas well as military rule in the three countries. The countries havevaried systems, but there is complete democracy in Egypt and Greece.Mesopotamia experienced military rule at some point in history. Thereis a tendency to think that Mesopotamia does not exist anymore. Thetruth is, it exists. It has matured from its tiny roots when itreceived approval by F.D.R. to a company that provides an extensiveelectricity structure to local citizens.


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