Causes of Water Pollution


Causesof Water Pollution

WaterPollution is an environmental issue that has a cause-effectrelationship with a number of things. It is an effect that has manycauses. In this essay, I will explore different causes that all leadto water pollution. Water pollution is defined as the existence ofdestructive or unpleasant material in water in abundant amount toevidently lower water quality. The polluted water, therefore, becomesless important and undesirable.

Firstof all, sewage and discarded water leads to water pollution. Sewageis waste water that contains human excretes and water already used inlaundry. It is also composed of all domestic waste water. Most attimes, poor management of sewage drainage systems leads to the wastewater getting its way into water bodies like rivers, lakes andoceans. This is as a result of spoilt sewer pipes. The water in thesebodies therefore becomes polluted and unfit for consumption. Marinedumping is also a cause of water pollution. A lot of materials findtheir way into the water bodies. These include items like plastics,polythene, cardboards, newspapers, metallic materials, and glass.This is mostly done by people living near the water bodies. Thelitter lowers the quality of water in such bodies, which is evidencedby the destruction and death of marine life(Water Pollution Guide, 2015).

Industriesare a major cause of water pollution. They produce very destructivepollutants. The pollutants include among others, lead, mercury,asbestos, nitrates, phosphates, and sulphur. When such products arereleased into water, they hinder oxygen circulation and also changethe composition of water. The result is polluted water with differentchemicals which in most cases cannot even be treated. Another causeof water pollution is nuclear waste. This is waste from radioactivematerials used in processes in industries, medical and sciencelaboratories. When such waste gets into water, the water quality isautomatically compromised. This means that most marine habitats areinterfered with.

Sinceoil does not dissolve in water, it becomes a water pollutant once itgets to any water body. Oil finds its way into water from ships, anddeliberate human dumping. The oil forms a top layer on water therebyblocking the circulation of air in water. Water that lacks oxygen issaid to be polluted. Such water cannot support animal life. Leakagesfrom underground storage also pollute water. These storages may besewer systems, petroleum transport pipes or any harmful products’storage tanks underground. As times goes on, such storage andtransport equipment wear off. The products in them thus find theirway to the ground and this leads to pollution of underground water.Underground water is used by far and large and thus its pollution iscatastrophic.

Wateris also polluted by air effluence. Air is mostly polluted by gaseoussubstances like oxides of sulphur, lead, and nitrogen. A mix of thesegases and water particles produces weak acids. These gases are alsoabsorbed by water vapor. Every time it rains, the water particlesabsorb the gases on air and the result is acid rain which is anexample of polluted water. Herbicides and fertilizers used inagricultural farms are another cause of water pollution. Not all ofthese products are used up by the plants. The herbicides andfertilizers contain harmful chemical elements. When it rains, thechemicals drain into soil as they are washed off the plants by therain water. The excess rain water in the soil finally drains intowater bodies. It is evident that such water is polluted as itcontains the chemicals in the used fertilizers and herbicides.

Introductionof water hyacinth into water bodies also leads to water pollution.According to UNEP Global Environment Alert Service (2013), waterhyacinth pollutes water by depleting it of oxygen and lowering thequality of the water. The water quality is reduced as the waterhyacinth forms floating mats that become breeding grounds fordifferent organisms which find their way into the water. These areworms and other microorganisms that survive in water. Another causeof water pollution is drilling activities. Buchele (2014) reportsthat research has proved water is polluted by drilling activities.Gas wells in Parker County, North Texas appeared to contaminatepeoples’ water wells. The water from those wells, therefore, waspolluted by methane gas. The drilling activities of the gas turnedclean water to polluted water over a span of time.

Thefinal cause of water pollution that I will discuss is flooding.During rainy seasons, floods carry a lot of waste materials to waterbodies. It is common to find drainage systems clogged with litter.Sometimes, heavy floods also sweep waste from litter deposit grounds.The litter carried is composed of many items that pollute the water.The causes discussed above have proved to bring about the effect ofwater pollution. It is evident there is a cause-effect relationshipin water pollution. The effect is one but it appears to have manycauses that contribute to it.


Buchele,M. (2014). Researchlinks drilling activities to water contamination in North Texas.Retrieved from

UNEPGlobal Environment Alert Service (2013). WaterHyacinth – Can its aggressive invasion be controlled?Retrieved from

WaterPollution Guide, (2015). Thecauses of water pollution.Retrieved from