AssessmentTools and Diagnostic Tests
AssessmentTools and Diagnostic Tests
Practically,individuals should be classified based on the correct diseasecondition and the level of accuracy of the test. A diagnostic test isdefined as the process of determining the absence of a disease if asubject indicates the symptoms of the disease. A screening test is aprocess of identifying any asymptomatic individual that may have adisease (Gargiulo& Metcalf 2013). Adiagnostic test is performed after establishing a positive screeningto set up a definitive diagnosis. Normally, many tests have acontinuous scale that is continuous and variable. The biologicalmeasurements in humans can at times not allow easy separation of adiseased person from a non-diseased person based on the value of themeasurements(Hegde & Freed, 2011).Validity is the ability to distinguish between a person with adisease and another one without. According to Larner (2015),sensitivity is the ability of a test to identify correctlyindividuals that have a disease.
TheSensitivity and Specificity of the Test
Ideally,it is important to know the correct status of the disease beforecalculations. Also, Gold standard test acts as the best availableeven though it is invasive and expensive. In brief, one can use a newtest or a screening test, and a less expensive diagnostic test is thebest tool. It is important to use a 2x2table to evaluate the performance of a test in the gold standardtest.
Factorsaffecting validity and reliability of diagnostic tests and assessmenttools
Diagnosisin an abnormal psychology is the process of classifying andidentifying any abnormal behavior on the patient’s symptoms, pastreports, general patient’s observations, clinical evaluations orany other factors including information from nuclear and extendedfamily. Nurses apply the psychological tests and assessments ordiagnostic manuals to come up with a diagnosis (Larner, 2015).Ideally, this process involves identifying similar results in thepsychological assessment containing a system of classifications theseincludes: DSM-IV-TR as well as ICD-10. The main purpose of thisprocess is to identify the best treatment for a patient and make aprognosis.
TheManuals of Diagnosis
TheAmerican Psychiatric Association developed a system known as DSM-IV.In this manual it contains the “mental disorders” a list thatcontains some of the symptoms that a nurse might look for so as toadminister a proper and right diagnosis.
TheReliability of Diagnosis
Thismeans that the nurses should apply the best correct diagnosis in aconsistent way if they want to administer a correct diagnosticprocedure example includes: a standardized clinical review, symptomsobserved from a patient, diagnostic and neuropsychologicalexaminations. Nurses can improve this process by applying thestandardized clinical interview processes with specific symptoms toobserve, this process is a prerequisite requirement for validity.
TheValidity of Diagnosis
Thisis the process of receiving a correct diagnosis. Validity shouldresult in a correct treatment as well as a prognosis (a predictivevalidity). This process entails presuppose the reliability of adiagnosis (Hegde & Freed 2011). Essentially, it is difficult tooffer a correct diagnosis and offer a prognosis of a psychologicaldisorder or the physical disorder the reason being it is difficult toobserve the signs and symptoms in a similar perspective. Basically,applying the DSM-IV manual does not entail any etiology but onlysymptoms. At times, some patients might have some symptoms relatingto different disorders proving it difficult to provide a validdiagnosis.
Gargiulo,R. M., & Metcalf, D. J. (2013). Teachingin today`s inclusive classrooms: A universal design for learningapproach.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Hegde,M. N., & Freed, D. B. (2011). Assessmentof communication disorders in adults.
Larner,A. J. (2015). Diagnostictest accuracy studies in dementia: A pragmatic approach.