APPLYINGAERIAL REMOTE SENSING
Themeasurement of the different parameter of water is a huge task.1In many places, the measurements do not exist because they requiremany stations in different parts of the water systems to monitorchanges in water quality and influence policy decision.2However, remote sensing has emerged as a potential solution to allthe management problems because it offers the possibility for remotemonitoring of water resources using satellites and highflyingaircrafts. 3Since the initial usage of remote sensing in 1974, the field hasgrown in application and reliability and is now a leading source ofdata related to the large water bodies in the world.4The growth of remote sensing is a very significant aspect ofhydrological management because it presents the possibility ofmonitoring the global hydrological resources from data collectedremotely.
Whena satellite or a high flying aircraft moves over the surface of theearth, it collects information that can be used for planning. Theincreasing resolution of cameras used and increased application ofthe images collected by the satellites and the highflying aircraftshas given rise to the field of remote sensing. Remote sensing hasmany applications, including the study of vegetative cover on thesurface of the earth and even the quality of water.5Images collected contain information that is useful in monitoring theparameters used to define water quality.6The specific parameters are sedimentation on the surface, thevegetation cover (chlorophyll) and the temperature of the water.Consequently, engineers usually utilize remote to observe or monitorthe quality of water.7
Applicationsof remote sensing
Characteristicssuch as chemical content, biological content and the physicalappearance of the water describe the quality of water.8Currently, inSitumethods of measuring the quality of water include a collection ofsamples and laboratory analysis. The method is very effective, and itaccounts for qualities that the remote sensing process cannot hope tocapture9.However, where the subject is a large water body and the requirementis a general overview of the water quality, or where the water bodyis inaccessible, remotesensingrelates to checking the quality of water.
Utilizationof Remote Sensing
Affluencesin water surfaces alter the backscattering appearances of the water.These characteristics can be monitored at specific wavelengths thus,determine the variations in the quality of water, occasioning from adischarge from a ditch or even a pipe. The optimal wavelength used tomeasure the quality of water depends on the specific parameter ofwater under investigation.10For example, measuring the vegetative cover used differentfrequencies to measuring the sedimentation after a storm. The same istrue for chemical properties and the temperature of the water.
Threeforms of measurements are used in remote sensing, reflectance,radiance, and energy. “In 1974, Ritchie et al. developed anempirical approach to estimate the sedimentation of water,”11They used the formula
“Y= A + BX or Y= ABX”,12
Accordingto Su-ju and Wang, “Y is the measurement of remote sensing(reflectance, energy or radiance) and X is the water qualityparameter that is of interest, such as sedimentation ofchlorophyll,”13“A and B are factors that are empirically derived,” Thestatistical characteristics are used to define the specificcharacteristics of the parameters.14For example, dust and other forms of sedimentation vary from place toplace while chlorophyll is different in different plant species.15Therefore, the spectral or optical characteristic of the waterparameter are important in determining the value of the twoempirically derived values. The values can only be applied to twodifferent bodies where they show similar characteristics.
In1992, Schiebe et al. developed a way to evaluate the connectionbetween the physical and the spectral characteristics of water.16The model had statistically determined coefficients Biand Siandwas successfully used the determine the concentration of sediments.The model used the formulae
Inthe formulae, iisthewavelengthof the specific electromagnetic wave used to measure the saturation,Riisthe reflectance as recorded by the Land sat or another recording tooland Birepresentsthe saturation level of the reflectance and Siis the saturation parameter.18
RemoteSensing in Measuring Sedimentation on Water
Insuspended sediment, the most common pollutant because of stormwaterand the wind, the sediments increase the radiation observed from thesurface water, especially in the visible to the new infrared spectrumof the electromagnetic radiation. The biggest determinant of theradiation type in sedimentation is the type of sediment, the textureof the sediment and the color.19The observations are supported by findings from in situ laboratoryexperiments. Other determinants are the sensor angle of view, thedepth of the water and the angle of the sun. Many different platformshave been used to study the characteristics of the sediments and haveshown that the best applicable wavelengths for measuring thesedimentation using remote sensing are between 700 and 800 nm.20
RemoteSensing in Measuring Plant Life on Water
Chlorophyllis a trickier parameter and requires more intense applications. Thedispersion frequency of chlorophyll range between 700 and 705 nm, therange of ‘green’ in the visible light spectrum. The absorptionfrequencies are between 675 and 780 nm.21However, there is a conflict between the observation of chlorophylland the range of sedimentation.22Therefore, where water has sediment content, it is hard to determinethe exact range of chlorophyll concentration measurement ofchlorophyll in the water is an important element because itdetermines the management of aquatic plants in large water bodies.23The effects of the atmosphere on the remote sensing process areminimal. However, it is possible for sedimentation in the air toaffect the quality of data received by the satellites and theaircrafts used for the remote sensing process.24In other applications, remote sensing regulates the presence ofproducers in the aquatic ecosystems.2526For example, the Hydrilla species of algae can be detected when it is2.5 centimeters below the service. The detection is helpful becauseit is used to evaluate the effects of changes in ocean temperaturesand other characteristics of the primary producers and thus evaluatethe sustainability of the aquatic ecosystems.27
RemoteSensing in Measuring Water Temperature
Watertemperature affects plant and animal life. Heat sensors attached toaircrafts and on satellites have been used to study the effects ofintroducing heated water on the ecosystems.28It is possible to monitor the effects of heat sources in the waterand thus predict the effects of these changes on life on the water.In weather studies, there are observed differences in oceantemperature from season to season. The changes are useful inpredicting the risks of weather changes by determining the effects ofocean water temperatures on the global weather patterns. For example,El Nino and other phenomena can be predicted by following the changesof surface temperature in the oceans.
Remotesensing is used in many practical applications. Waste material suchas polyethene bags and other forms of waste represent watersedimentation. Therefore, their presence can be accounted for usingthe remote sensing process of monitoring water resources is an idealplatform for monitoring the condition of water and the areas wherepollution is most prominent. In addition, remote sensing can be usedto detect the source of wastes that pollute the oceans.
Remotesensing is a very compelling tool used to study specificcharacteristics of the water. It is replacing in situ studies withincreasing efficiency in the reliability of the data produced by theinstruments used for remote sensing. The increasing power of thecameras and other sensors, and specialized satellites have helpedadvance the field of remote sensing to the extent that it iscurrently used to monitor environmental pollution in large waterbodies.29The growth of the field has unlimited potential because it can beused to monitor industrial discharge and thus help to preserve theenvironment. In addition, it is useful in monitoring the differentchanges in the oceans that may have a bearing on plant and animallife. In the coming years, it will be conceivable to determine theexact concentration of pollutants in large water bodies and detectthe slightest changes in temperature. These measures of the qualityof water have unlimited applications in water management.
Bukata,R.p., J.e. Bruton, and J.h. Jerome. "Use of Chromaticity inRemote Measurements of Water Quality." RemoteSensing of Environment13, no. 2 (2003): 161-77.
Campbell,James B. Introductionto Remote Sensing.2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2007.
Christodoulou,George C., and Anastasios I. Stamou. Environmental Hydraulics, TwoVolume SetProceedings of the 6th International Symposium on EnviornmentalHydraulics,Athens, Greece, 23-25 June 2010. Hoboken: CRC Press, 2010.
Dekker,A.g., T.j. Malthus, and E. Seyhan. "Improving QuantitativeAnalysis Of Inland Water Quality Using High Spectral ResolutionImaging And Non-imaging Data." In 10thAnnual International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing23, no. 1 (2012): 234-56.
Lillesand,Thomas M., and Ralph W. Kiefer. RemoteSensing and Image Interpretation.New York: Wiley, 2009.
Liu,Yansui, Md Anisul Islam, and Jay Gao. "Quantification of ShallowWater Quality Parameters by Means of Remote Sensing." Progressin Physical Geography,2003, 24-43.
Pulliainen,Jouni, Kari Kallio, Karri Eloheimo, Sampsa Koponen, Henri Servomaa,Tuula Hannonen, Simo Tauriainen, and Martti Hallikainen. "ASemi-operative Approach to Lake Water Quality Retrieval from RemoteSensing Data." Scienceof The Total Environment268, no. 1–3 (2001): 79-93.
Ritchie,Jerry C., Paul V. Zimba, and James H. Everitt. "Remote SensingTechniques to Assess Water Quality." PhotogrammetricEngineering & Remote Sensing69, no. 6 (2003): 695-704.
Sawaya,K. "Extending Satellite Remote Sensing to Local Scales: Land andWater Resource Monitoring Using High-resolution Imagery." RemoteSensing of Environment88, no. 1–2 (2003).
Sawaya,K. "Extending Satellite Remote Sensing to Local Scales: Land andWater Resource Monitoring Using High-resolution Imagery." RemoteSensing of Environment88, no. 1–2 (2003): 144–156.
Slonecker,E. Terrence, David B. Jennings, and Donald Garofalo. "RemoteSensing of Impervious Surfaces: A Review." RemoteSensing Reviews20, no. 3 (2009): 227-55.
Stirling,Graham R. BiologicalControl of Plant-parasitic Nematodes: Soil Ecosystem Management inSustainable Agriculture.2nd ed. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI, 2014.
Su-ju,LI, and WANG Xue-jun. "The Spectral Features Analysis andQuantitative Remote Sensing Advances of Inland Water QualityParameters." Geographyand Territorial Research202, no. 02 (2012): 72=-89.
Torgersen,Christian E, Russell N Faux, Bruce A Mcintosh, Nathan J Poage, andDouglas J Norton. "Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing for WaterTemperature Assessment in Rivers and Streams." RemoteSensing of Environment76, no. 3 (2001): 386-98.
Turner,Woody, Sacha Spector, Ned Gardiner, Matthew Fladeland, EleanorSterling, and Marc Steininger. "Remote Sensing for BiodiversityScience and Conservation." Trendsin Ecology & Evolution6, no. 18 (2003): 306-14.
1 James Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd ed. (New York: Guilford Press, 2007), 33.
2 Woody Turner, Sacha Spector, Ned Gardiner, Matthew Fladeland, Eleanor Sterling, and Marc Steininger, "Remote Sensing for Biodiversity Science and Conservation." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6, no. 18 (2003), 308.
3 Graham Stirling, Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes: Soil Ecosystem Management in Sustainable Agriculture. 2nd ed. (Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI, 2014), 11.
4 Woody Turner et al., "Remote Sensing for Biodiversity Science and Conservation." Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 310.
5 Graham Stirling, Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, 16.
6 Kali Sawaya, "Extending Satellite Remote Sensing to Local Scales: Land and Water Resource Monitoring Using High-resolution Imagery." Remote Sensing of Environment 88, no. 1–2 (2003).
7 Graham Stirling, 21.
8 James Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing, 33.
9 Kali Sawaya, 3.
10 Christian Torgersen, Russell N Faux, Bruce A Mcintosh, Nathan J Poage, and Douglas J Norton, "Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing for Water Temperature Assessment in Rivers and Streams." Remote Sensing of Environment 76, no. 3 (2001), 370.
11 Li Su-ju and WANG Xue-jun, "The Spectral Features Analysis and Quantitative Remote Sensing Advances of Inland Water Quality Parameters." Geography and Territorial Research 202, no. 02 (2012),73.
12 Ibid, 74
13 Ibid, 75
14 Thomas Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (New York: Wiley, 2009), 58.
15 Jouni Pulliainen, Kari Kallio, Karri Eloheimo, Sampsa Koponen, Henri Servomaa, Tuula Hannonen, Simo Tauriainen, and Martti Hallikainen, "A Semi-operative Approach to Lake Water Quality Retrieval from Remote Sensing Data." Science of The Total Environment 268, no. 1–3 (2001), 81.
16 Jerry Ritchie, Paul V. Zimba, and James H. Everitt, "Remote Sensing Techniques to Assess Water Quality." Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 69, no. 6 (2003), 695.
17 Ibid, 695
18 Ibid, 697
19 Dekker, A.g., T.j. Malthus, and E. Seyhan, "Improving Quantitative Analysis Of Inland Water Quality Using High Spectral Resolution Imaging And Non-imaging Data." 10th Annual International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 23, no. 1 (2012): 234-56.
20 Jerry Ritchie et al., 700.
21 Ibid, 700
22 A Dekker, T.j. Malthus, and E. Seyhan, "Improving Quantitative Analysis Of Inland Water Quality Using High Spectral Resolution Imaging And Non-imaging Data." 10th Annual International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 23, no. 1 (2012), 234.
23 Christian Torgersen et al., 388.
24 R. P Bukata, J.e. Bruton, and J.h. Jerome, "Use of Chromaticity in Remote Measurements of Water Quality." Remote Sensing of Environment 13, no. 2 (2003), 163.
25 Yansui Liu, Md Anisul Islam, and Jay Gao, "Quantification of Shallow Water Quality Parameters by Means of Remote Sensing." Progress in Physical Geography, (2003), 24.
26 Terrence Slonecker, David B. Jennings, and Donald Garofalo, "Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces: A Review." Remote Sensing Reviews 20, no. 3 (2009), 231.
27 Ibid, 233
28 A Dekker et al., 240
29 R.p. Bukata et al., 167.