5 Health-Based Components of Fitness

5Health-Based Components of Fitness

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Fitnessis the state of having a healthy body that can perform variousoccupational tasks without difficulty or without affecting thesystems of the body. Fitness is a general state of maintaining ahealthy body. It is achieved through better nutrition, moderatelyvigorous physical activities, exercising and having enough rest.There are five health-based components of fitness aimed at reducinghypokinetic diseases. They are made up of muscular strength, muscularendurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility and body fatcomposition. Various tests are used in monitoring efficacy of thecomponents, and each has an advantage and disadvantage in theworkplace.


Musclestrength is the capability of the muscle to apply a given force inthe lifting of an object at a given distance. It is simply thecapacity of the muscle to have the power of lifting objects or allowbody movements. This enables the body to stay healthy and have thecapacity to meet the demands placed upon it. Muscular strength isachieved through involving the muscles, especially done by weightlifting. Weightlifting enables the body to stay strong and able toperform tasks that include muscle activity. Fahey (2011) suggeststhat it is through this component of fitness that one increases hisor her muscular strength and mass. One major limitation is thefatigue that comes in trying to achieve this part, this may limit theworkability but will reduce with time as the body gets used to it. Adynamometer is used to measure the muscle strength. Also, manual waysof measurement can be utilized by the physiotherapist, and thisinclude resistance to push that is then given a score.


Enduranceis the ability to use the muscles for a long time in a ratherlaborious task without feeling worn out. This is different frommuscle strength as it specializes in giving the muscles thecapability to accomplish a task at a longer time. Muscle endurancesalso achieved through lifting the weight but for this, light weightsare used. It is mostly performed through a 20-25 rep workout. Muscleendurance trains the muscle fibers on how to contract for longerperiods. The advantage of this component is the prevention ofdiseases such as diabetes through reduction of adipose tissue leadingto increased glucose utilization, cardiovascular diseases throughprevention of thromboembolic lesions and others such as hypertensionand hyperlipidemia. One disadvantage is that this process takes longto achieve and, therefore, requires patience and persistence. Thepush-up tests measure it.


Thiscomponent with a combination of the other is very beneficial. Itallows proper circulation of blood and keeps a healthy heart andlungs. It is achieved through running, jogging, swimming, cycling andany other exercise that involves the heart and lungs. One benefit isthat it enables one to stay alert at work, less stressed and securefrom cardiovascular diseases among others (Fahey, 2011). It is,however, time-consuming and the fatigue that comes with it may causeone to give up. The Bruce test and the Harvard Step Test can be usedin measuring the cardiovascular endurance.


Flexibilityaims at ensuring that the body is not stiff and can move through itstotal range of motion. This component of fitness enables the musclesand the joints to be less stiff and able to move freely. It isachieved through exercises such as sit-ups, trying to touch the toesby leaning, among others. However, when done wrongly, one may injuretheir muscles or joints. It is beneficial in along swift movements atthe workplace and reducing stiffness.

BodyFat Composition

Thisis the amount of fat compared to muscle in the body, an increase ofwhich lead to obesity. It is an important component of fitness.Skinfold calipers are used to measure this component. Vigorousexercise such as running helps reduce the body fat. A reduced bodyfat or a typical body composition helps the body remain healthy andimprove workability it also enables one maintain a proper bodystructure and figure. Losing too much at a very short time also comeswith risks of developing health complications such as effects on thehomeostatic functions (Fahey, 2011).


Eachof the components mentioned is of importance in maintaining a fitbody. A combination of them leads to a healthy body that is importantin the workplace. Fitness also leads to increased alertness andproper mental functioning thus relevant for the workplace. However,in the beginning, one encounters fatigue due to the physicalexercises, and this is disadvantageous in the workplace but withpersistence, the body becomes used to, and the cons become the pros.


Fahey,T., &amp Insel, P. (2011). Fit &ampamp well: The core concepts andlabs in physical fitness and wellness (8th ed., brief ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill Higher Education.